Cardiovascular Disease L13 Flashcards Preview

Chronic Disease > Cardiovascular Disease L13 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Disease L13 Deck (10):
1

Causes of CAD​

Diet

• ____1____ (excess)

• ____2____ (insufficiency)

Exercise

•Lack of exercise

•Excessive exercise

Stress

Drugs

•Some medical treatments confer increased risk of CAD

•Smoking & excess alcohol

Genes – in common forms of CAD

1. Obesity

2. Anorexia

2

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Heart Attack

•175,000 cases per year in UK

Stroke

•40,000 cases per year in UK

•1.3 million people living in the UK have had a stroke

3

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Impact of CAD: Personal & Financial

Personal

•Social status

•Personal confidence

•Concerns about your present/future – stress

•Concerns about your family – stress

Financial

•Work & Benefits

•Early Retirement & Pensions

4

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Impact of CAD: Social Issues

Impact on NHS

•GP & hospital time & resources

•Treatment cost & resources

Impact on social status

•Activity

•Other people’s opinion(s)

Impact on society

•Are you working?

•Are you contributing in other ways?

5

Treatment of CAD: Lifestyle

•Balanced ____1____ plan

•Balanced diet

•Give up; ____2____, ____3____ (depending on treatment)

•Work on reducing stress & causes of stress

1. Exercise

2. Smoking

3. Alcohol

6

Treatment of CAD: Transplantation & Surgery

Transplantation:

•Heart transplants in UK = 143 (in 2013)

•Waiting time – days, months or even years

•Operation lasts 4 to 6 hours on average

•Approximately four weeks in hospital lots of follow-up visits

•Life-long ______  1  ______ & other drugs too

Other surgery:

•____2____ – widens coronary artery (common for immediate treatment of heart attacks)

•____3____ – diverts some of blood flow from coronary artery

•Ablation/cardioversion – restores heart rhythm

1. Immune suppression

2. Angioplasty

3. Bypass

7

Treatment of CAD: Drug therapy (some examples)

•Therapy depends on both life style changes and medical treatments applied

•Some drugs can help to reduce fat – for example “statins”

•____1____ needs immune suppression

•Angioplasty especially insertion of stents may require treatment with clopidegrel or aspirin to reduce the risk of ____2____ formation around the stents

1. Transplantation

2. Clot

8

The underlying mechanism of CHD involves ____1____ (artery-wall thickening as a result of accumulation of white blood cells and proliferation of intimal-smooth-muscle cell creating a plaque), of the ____2____ of the heart.

1. Atherosclerosis

2. Arteries

9

Name a few diagnostic tests for CHD. (4)

  • Electrocardiogram
  • Cardiac stress testing
  • Coronary computed tomographic angiography
  • Coronary angiogram

10

What are other names for Cardiovascular disease?

  • Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
  • Coronry Artery Disease (CAD)
  • Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD)