Bioactive Foods L6-7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bioactive Foods L6-7 Deck (19):
1

What are the following an example of?

  • Flavonoids
  • Tannins
  • Lignins

Plant polyphenols

2

What are the following an example of?

  • Flavonoids
  • Catechins
  • Isoflavones

Polyphenols

3

Name up to 7 foods in which polyphenols are found.

  • Vegetables
  • Fruits
  • Cereals
  • Legumes
  • Nuts
  • Tea
  • Wine

4

Name up to 4 foods/food-groups in which phytosterols are found.

  • Nuts
  • Seeds
  • Unrefined plant oils
  • Legumes

5

Name up to 5 foods in which carotenoids are found.

  • Carrots
  • Squash
  • Sweet potato
  • Spinach
  • Kale

6

Name up to 3 foods/food-groups in which tocopherols are found.

  • Vegetable oils
  • Nuts
  • Germ portion of grains

7

Name the 2 types of vegetables in which organosulphur compounds are found.

  • Cruciferous vegetables
  • Allium vegetables

8

Plant _______ = Characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit/benzene ring per molecule; varying numbers of hydroxyl (-OH) carbonyl (-CO) and carboxylate (-COOH) groups.

Polyphenols

9

___________ = 

  • Soyabean is a particularly rich source
  • Occur in unfermented foods predominantly as beta-glucosides
  • In fermented foods (e.g. tofu) occur as aglycones
  • Major circulating forms (after metabolism in intestine and liver) are conjugates to glucuronic acid (i.e. glucuronides) and sulphates

Isoflavones

10

Quote the critical review of health effects of isoflavones on bone health.

"A suggestion but no conclusive evidence that isoflavones from the sources studied so far have a benefical effect on bone health”.

11

Quote the critical review of health effects of isoflavones on cardiovascular effects.

“The consumption of whole soyabean foods and soyabean protein isolate has some beneficial effects on lipid markers of cardiovascular disease in health post-menopausal women.  The consumption of isolated isoflavones does not affect blood lipid levels or blood pressure.”

12

Why are effects of bioactive food components so difficult to demonstrate in human subjects?

  • Compliance with intervention
  • Confounding factors; requirement for tight inclusion/exclusion criteria:
    • Background diet
    • Medication
    • Other lifestyle factors (e.g. smoking, physical activity level)
  • Influences of genotype

13

Name a rich source of Resveratrol.

Red grapes.

14

Define a bioactive food component.

A nonessential biomolecule in foods that can modulate a metabolic process(es).

15

Summary of bioactive food components, sources and reported effects

Q image thumb

16

Isoflavone Structure

The 3 phenol rings connected in this way is the basic structure of all polyphenols.

Very similar structure to ______ so many of their in vivo actions are due to either mimicking ______ or causing an antagonistic effect at ______ receptors. (Both for and against ______ effects).

Q image thumb

Oestrogen

17

Genistein promotes the conversion of white adipose tissues to brown adipose tissues. Brown adipose tissue wastes ____1____ (therefore could be used for obesity). Only proven in vivo. This action is known to be nothing to do with an effect on ____2____ receptors. (Proven by adding ____2____ receptor antagonist → adipose effect still happened).

1. Energy

2. Oestrogen

18

Differences in structures of polyphenols mainly occur on phenol __.

A

19

Equol is a metabolite of Diadzein.

Interestingly there is a quite clear phenotype with ability to produce Equol in that some of us can and some of us cannot. Most likely due to the type of bacteria present in the gut that determines this. Some evidence suggests it may be a beneficial metabolite.

Equol and Diadzein are both ______

Isoflavones