coronary arteries fill during _____________ (diastole / systole)
What do the numbers represent in the pressure-volume loop?
1. mitral valve opening
2. ventricular filling
3. mitral valve closing
4. isovolumetric contraction
5. aortic valve opening
7. aortic valve closing
8. isovolumetric relaxation
what are the criteria for initiating a moderate or high intensity statin?
- clinical ASCVD
- LDL over 190
- DM AND age 40-75
-10 yr ASCVD risk 7.5% AND age 40-75
what is the site of action of fibrates?
blood - stimulate lipoprotein lipase
TPA decreases mortality if used within ____ hours post-MI
what is the treatment for type I heart block?
- adjust doses of medications associated with heart block
- pacemaker ONLY IF SYMPTOMATIC BRADYCARDIA
type I heart block is caused by a conduction defect in what part of the heart?
intranodal or His bundle
type II heart block is caused by a conduction defect in what part of the heart?
INFRAnodal (His bundle, Purkinje fibers)
what is the treatment for type II heart block?
paroxysmal SVT is an arrhythmia that arises in which location(s)?
atria or aV junction
what is the usual cause of PSVT?
reentry anomaly (AV nodal reentry, AV reentry)
what is the difference between AV nodal reentry and AV reentry?
- AV nodal reentry: fast and slow pathways
- AV reentry (WPW): extra pathway
what is the pharmacological therapy for nodal reentry tachycardia?
- nodal reentry: BB or CCB
- reentry (WPW): type Ia or Ic, or catheter ablation
what is the cutoff for administering cardioversion in a patient with A fib?
two days - if after two days, must confirm that there is no thrombus (if there is a thrombus, anticoag and wait 3-4 weeks before cardioversion)
MOA of antiarrhythmics
- Ia: sodium channel blockers (prolong AP)
- Ib: sodium channel blockers (shorten AP)
- Ic: sodium channel blockers (no effect on AP)
- II: BBs
- III: potassium channel blockers
- IV: calcium channel blockers
- Other: potassium channel actviation (decrease in intracellular cAMP)
quinidine and procainamide are examples of what class of antiarrhythmic?
Ia (sodium channel blockers - prolong AP)
lidocaine and tocainide are examples of what class of antiarrhythmic?
Ib (sodium channel blockers - shorten AP)
flecainide and propafenone are examples of what class of antiarrhythmic?
Ic (sodium channel blockers - no effect on AP)
what is the equation for EF?
EF = SV / EDV
what is the pharmacologic therapy for systolic HF?
- loop diuretic (decrease preload)
- ACE-I or ARB (decrease preload and afterload and increase CO)
- add BB once stable on ACE-I
- add aldosterone blocker (spironolactone or eplerenone) in select patients
what is the pharmacologic therapy in diastolic HF?
- CCB, ARB, ACE-I to control BP
- BB to control HR and decrease workload
what is the murmur type for aortic stenosis?
systolic ejection (crescendo-decrescendo)
what is the murmur type for mitral regurg?
what is the murmur type for tricuspid regurg?
what is the murmur type for MVP?
late systolic (with click)
what is the murmur type for aortic regurg?
what is the murmur type for mitral stenosis?
what does valsalva do to AS?
what is an austin flint murmur? in which type of valvular disease is it seen?
- late diastolic rumble
- aortic regurg
what is the quincke sign? in which condition is it seen?
- capillary pulsations in nail bed, more visible when pressure is applied
- aortic regurg
what is the pharm therapy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
what is the pharm therapy for dilated cardiomyopathy?
diuretics, ACEI, BB, anticoag
equal pressure in all chambers on cardiac catheterization = ?
chronic constrictive pericarditis
what is the treatment for chronic constrictive pericarditis?
- surgical excision of pericardium
acute rheumatic fever is caused by untreated group ___ strep