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Flashcards in Cardiovascular disorders Deck (36):
1

coronary arteries fill during _____________ (diastole / systole)

diastole

2

What do the numbers represent in the pressure-volume loop? 

Q image thumb

1. mitral valve opening 

2. ventricular filling 

3. mitral valve closing 

4. isovolumetric contraction 

5. aortic valve opening 

6. ejection 

7. aortic valve closing 

8. isovolumetric relaxation 

3

what are the criteria for initiating a moderate or high intensity statin? 

- clinical ASCVD 

- LDL over 190 

- DM AND age 40-75 

-10 yr ASCVD risk 7.5% AND age 40-75 

4

what is the site of action of fibrates? 

blood - stimulate lipoprotein lipase 

5

TPA decreases mortality if used within ____ hours post-MI 

12

6

what is the treatment for type I heart block? 

- adjust doses of medications associated with heart block 

- pacemaker ONLY IF SYMPTOMATIC BRADYCARDIA 

7

type I heart block is caused by a conduction defect in what part of the heart? 

intranodal or His bundle

8

type II heart block is caused by a conduction defect in what part of the heart? 

INFRAnodal (His bundle, Purkinje fibers) 

9

what is the treatment for type II heart block? 

pacemaker 

10

paroxysmal SVT is an arrhythmia that arises in which location(s)? 

atria or aV junction 

11

what is the usual cause of PSVT? 

reentry anomaly (AV nodal reentry, AV reentry) 

12

what is the difference between AV nodal reentry and AV reentry? 

- AV nodal reentry: fast and slow pathways 

- AV reentry (WPW): extra pathway 

13

what is the pharmacological therapy for nodal reentry tachycardia? 

- nodal reentry: BB or CCB 

- reentry (WPW): type Ia or Ic, or catheter ablation 

14

what is the cutoff for administering cardioversion in a patient with A fib? 

two days - if after two days, must confirm that there is no thrombus (if there is a thrombus, anticoag and wait 3-4 weeks before cardioversion) 

15

MOA of antiarrhythmics

- Ia: sodium channel blockers (prolong AP) 

- Ib: sodium channel blockers (shorten AP) 

- Ic: sodium channel blockers (no effect on AP) 

- II: BBs 

- III: potassium channel blockers 

- IV: calcium channel blockers 

- Other: potassium channel actviation (decrease in intracellular cAMP) 

16

quinidine and procainamide are examples of what class of antiarrhythmic? 

Ia (sodium channel blockers - prolong AP) 

17

lidocaine and tocainide are examples of what class of antiarrhythmic? 

Ib (sodium channel blockers - shorten AP) 

18

flecainide and propafenone are examples of what class of antiarrhythmic? 

Ic (sodium channel blockers - no effect on AP) 

19

what is the equation for EF? 

EF = SV / EDV

20

what is the pharmacologic therapy for systolic HF? 

- loop diuretic (decrease preload) 

- ACE-I or ARB (decrease preload and afterload and increase CO) 

- add BB once stable on ACE-I 

- add aldosterone blocker (spironolactone or eplerenone) in select patients

21

what is the pharmacologic therapy in diastolic HF? 

- CCB, ARB, ACE-I to control BP 

- BB to control HR and decrease workload 

22

what is the murmur type for aortic stenosis? 

systolic ejection (crescendo-decrescendo) 

23

what is the murmur type for mitral regurg? 

holosystolic 

24

what is the murmur type for tricuspid regurg? 

holosystolic 

25

what is the murmur type for MVP? 

late systolic (with click) 

26

what is the murmur type for aortic regurg? 

early diastolic 

27

what is the murmur type for mitral stenosis? 

mid/late diastolic 

28

what does valsalva do to AS? 

decrease 

29

what is an austin flint murmur? in which type of valvular disease is it seen? 

- late diastolic rumble 

- aortic regurg 

30

what is the quincke sign? in which condition is it seen? 

- capillary pulsations in nail bed, more visible when pressure is applied 

- aortic regurg 

31

what is the pharm therapy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy? 

BB, CCB

32

what is the pharm therapy for dilated cardiomyopathy? 

diuretics, ACEI, BB, anticoag 

33

equal pressure in all chambers on cardiac catheterization = ? 

chronic constrictive pericarditis 

34

what is the treatment for chronic constrictive pericarditis? 

- NSAIDs 

- colchicine 

- surgical excision of pericardium 

35

acute rheumatic fever is caused by untreated group ___ strep 

group A 

36