Flashcards in Genitourinary disorders Deck (36):
what is the only segment of the nephron loop that is permeable to water?
descending limb (medulla)
__________ cells drive sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion when stimulated by aldosterone
__________ cells secrete protons and reabsorb potassium
principal cells drive ________ reabsorption and __________ secretion when stimulated by aldosterone
intercalated cells secrete _________ and reabsorb ___________
which type of stones are radiolucent?
how do you treat uric acid stones?
what is the pharm therapy for adult polycystic kidney disease?
- vasopressin receptor antagonists
prevent collection of fluid in cysts
post strep glomerulonephritis
split basement membrane on EM?
spike and dome basement membrane thickening?
which type of nephrotic syndrome is associated with hep B and C?
treatment for membranoproliferative GN?
corticosteroids combined with either ASA or dipyridamole
treatment for amyloidosis GN?
- HSC transplant
- renal transplant
prerenal azotemia FENa = ?
less than 1%
ATN FENa = ?
what is the equation for FENa?
[(urine Na / serum Na)] / [(urine Cr / serum Cr)]
RTA leads to a(n) _______________ (anion / non-anion) gap metabolic acidosis
what is the defect in type 1 RTA?
impaired proton secretion leading to secondary hyperaldosteronism
what differentiates type 1 RTA from the others?
urine pH OVER 5.3
what is the treatment for type 1 RTA?
- oral bicarb
- thiazide diuretics
what is the defect in type 2 RTA?
bicarb reabsorption defect
what differentiates type 2 RTA from the others?
bone lesions on x-ray
what is the treatment for type 2 RTA?
- oral bicarb
- thiazide or loop diuretic
what is the defect in type 4 RTA?
primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism
what differentiates type 4 RTA from the others?
HYPERKALEMIA (and high Cl)
what is the treatment for type 4 RTA?
- potassium RESTRICTION
in a healthy person, serum pH is regulated by _____ reabsorption in the ___________ and blood _______
- bicarb in the proximal tubule
normal anion gap suggests a loss of ________
increased anion gap acidosis suggests _____ excess
how do you determine the approximate required correction of sodium in a patient with purely fluid losses as the cause of hypernatremia?
water deficit = total body water x ([Na]/140 - 1)
*total body water = 0.60 x mass in kg
**half is given in 24 hrs in addition to maintenance fluids, remainder is given over following 24-48 hrs
how do glucocorticoids treat hypercalcemia (severe cases)?
decrease intestinal absorption
lower limit of normal Ca2+ decreases _____ mg/dL for each 1g/dL albumin under 4
*ionized calcium will not be affected by albumin levels
in men, purulent urethral discharge is seen with what organism?
what type of culture is used for n. gonorrhoeae?