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Flashcards in Genitourinary disorders Deck (36):
1

what is the only segment of the nephron loop that is permeable to water?

descending limb (medulla)

2

__________ cells drive sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion when stimulated by aldosterone

principal

3

__________ cells secrete protons and reabsorb potassium

intercalated

4

principal cells drive ________ reabsorption and __________ secretion when stimulated by aldosterone

sodium, potassium

5

intercalated cells secrete _________ and reabsorb ___________

potassium

6

which type of stones are radiolucent?

uric acid

7

how do you treat uric acid stones?

alkalinize urine

8

what is the pharm therapy for adult polycystic kidney disease?

- vasopressin receptor antagonists
- amiloride

prevent collection of fluid in cysts

9

subepithelial humps?

post strep glomerulonephritis

10

split basement membrane on EM?

alport syndrome

11

spike and dome basement membrane thickening?

membranous nephropathy

12

which type of nephrotic syndrome is associated with hep B and C?

membranous

13

treatment for membranoproliferative GN?

corticosteroids combined with either ASA or dipyridamole

14

treatment for amyloidosis GN?

- melphalan
- HSC transplant
- renal transplant

15

prerenal azotemia FENa = ?

less than 1%

16

ATN FENa = ?

over 2%

17

what is the equation for FENa?

[(urine Na / serum Na)] / [(urine Cr / serum Cr)]

18

RTA leads to a(n) _______________ (anion / non-anion) gap metabolic acidosis

non-anion

19

what is the defect in type 1 RTA?

impaired proton secretion leading to secondary hyperaldosteronism

20

what differentiates type 1 RTA from the others?

urine pH OVER 5.3

21

what is the treatment for type 1 RTA?

- oral bicarb
- potassium
- thiazide diuretics

22

what is the defect in type 2 RTA?

bicarb reabsorption defect

23

what differentiates type 2 RTA from the others?

bone lesions on x-ray

24

what is the treatment for type 2 RTA?

- oral bicarb
- potassium
- thiazide or loop diuretic

25

what is the defect in type 4 RTA?

primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism

26

what differentiates type 4 RTA from the others?

HYPERKALEMIA (and high Cl)

27

what is the treatment for type 4 RTA?

- fludricortisone
- potassium RESTRICTION

28

in a healthy person, serum pH is regulated by _____ reabsorption in the ___________ and blood _______

- bicarb in the proximal tubule
- pCO2

29

normal anion gap suggests a loss of ________

bicarb

30

increased anion gap acidosis suggests _____ excess

proton

31

how do you determine the approximate required correction of sodium in a patient with purely fluid losses as the cause of hypernatremia?

water deficit = total body water x ([Na]/140 - 1)

*total body water = 0.60 x mass in kg

**half is given in 24 hrs in addition to maintenance fluids, remainder is given over following 24-48 hrs

32

how do glucocorticoids treat hypercalcemia (severe cases)?

decrease intestinal absorption

33

lower limit of normal Ca2+ decreases _____ mg/dL for each 1g/dL albumin under 4

0.8

*ionized calcium will not be affected by albumin levels

34

in men, purulent urethral discharge is seen with what organism?

n. gonorrhoeae

35

what type of culture is used for n. gonorrhoeae?

thayer martin

36

which type of testicular tumor requires radical orchiectomy with the possibility of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection?

nonseminomatous (early stage)