Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

Embryology > Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (52):
1

Situs inversus

Mirror image of all vicera
(Caused by leftward loop of the heart tube)

2

3 components of embryonic vascular system

1. Umbilical circulation
2. Vitelline system
3. Cardinal systems

3

Umbilical circulation

Brings blood to and from the placenta

4

Vitelline system

Brings blood to and from the yolk sac

5

Cardinal system

Brings blood to embryo proper

6

Anastomes

Connection created by tubular structures (i.e blood vessels)

7

Ductus venosus

Connects left umbilical vein and right vitelline vein

8

Supracardinal system becomes ______ and leaves its legacy as ________

Hemizygous vein, azygous vein

9

Brachiocephalic vein

Allow left sided vessels to drain into SVC and then right side of the heart

10

Right horn of sinus venosus becomes _____ in mature heart

Incorporated into body of right atrium

11

Sinoatrial ring becomes _______ in mature heart

Contributes to sinus node

12

Left horn of sinus venosus becomes _______ in mature heart

Coronary sinus

13

Fate of 1st aortic arch

Regresses completely

14

Fate of 2nd aortic arch

Regresses completely

15

Fate of 5th aortic arch

Never forms

16

Fate of 3rd aortic arch

Common and internal carotid arteries

17

Fate of 4th aortic arch

L: arch of aorta
R: right subclavian artery

18

Fate of 6th aortic arch

L: proximal pulmonary artery, ductus venosus
R: regresses

19

Dominant ventricle in fetal life

Right

20

Site of oxygenation in the fetus

Placenta

21

Ventricles are working in _______ during fetal life

Parallel

22

Systemic pressure in fetal life is

Low

23

In fetal life, the left and right sides of circulation communicate through:

1. Foramen ovale
2. Ductus arteriosus

24

Oxygen tension in the fetal heart is

Very low

25

Ductus dependent conditions

1. Pulmonic stenosis
2. Preductal coarctation of the aorta
3. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

26

TAPVC

Connection between the left atrium and common pulmonary vein fails to develop or becomes atretic

27

Persistent truncus arteriosus communis

Aplasia of the conal, truncal, and sometimes aorticopulmonary septum

28

Vascular ring

Trachea and esophagus are encircled and partially obstructed

29

PDA

Ductus arteriosus fails to constrict at the time of birth

30

Coarctation of the aorta

Narrowing in the descending aorta which obstructs flow

31

3 types of coarctation of the aorta

1. Juxtaductal
2. Preductal
4. Postductal

32

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome consists of:

1. Mitral atresia
2. Aortic atresia
3. Both

33

TGA

Aorta arises from the right ventricle and pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle

34

Balloon atrial septostomy

Non-operative
ASD is created to allow mixing of saturated and desaturated blood

35

Tricuspid atresia

No opening exists in the tricuspid valve
Blood> RA > LA > LV

36

Interventricular foramen in mature heart

Aortic vestibule

37

4 important steps below the heart in systemic venous system development

1. Liver begins developing
2. Oxygenated blood to ductus venosus
3. Subcardinal system arises
4. Supracardinal system establishes anastomoses with other venous networks

38

Brachiocephalic vein

Allows left-sided vessels to drain into the SVC and then right side of the heart

39

Right horn of sinous venosus in mature heart

Incorporated into body of right atrium

40

Sinoatrial ring in mature heart

Sinus node

41

Left horn of sinus venosus in mature heart

Coronary sinus

42

L-TGA

Primary heart tube loops to the left rather than the right resulting in ventricular inversion

43

Situs inversus

Develop with all viscera in L to R orientation

44

3 types of ASD

1. Ostium secundum
2. Ostium primum
3. Sinus venosus

45

4 types of VSD

1. Membranous
2. Supracristal
3. Posterior located
4. Muscular

46

4 features of complete AV canal

1. Ostium primum ASD
2. Posteriorly located VSD
3. Abnormal mitral/ tricuspid valve
4. Single common AV valve (incompetent)

47

Cause of TOF

Result of malposition if conal septum so that it unequally partitions the outflow tract of the heart leading to small pulmonary outflow tract and large aorta

48

Cause of DORV

Cono-truncal region of the heart fails to shift medially as its being partitioned -- outflow to the aorta and lungs continues to be from the right ventricle

49

Cause of PTAC

Aplasia of the truncal, conal, and sometimes aoricopulmoanary septum

50

Cause of AP window

Aorticopulmonary septum is missing

51

Cause of pulmonic stenosis

Excessive fusion of the pulmonary valve cusps
Dysplasia of valve tissue

52

Cause of TAPVC

Connection between the LA and common pulmonary vein fails to develop or becomes atretic