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Flashcards in Gastrointestinal System Deck (38):
1

8 derivatives of the foregut

1. Esophagus
2. Diaphragm
3. Stomach
4. Duodenum
5. Liver
6. Biliary apparatus
7. Pancreas
8. Spleen

2

Bile is produced in the _______

Liver

3

Bile is stored in the ____________

Gall bladder

4

Two functions of the pancreas

1. Endocrine: produce insulin
2. Exocrine: produce proteolytic digestive enzymes

5

2 derivatives of midgut

1. Small intestine
2. Ascending colon

6

4 derivatives if hindgut

1. Transverse, descending, sigmoid colon
2. Rectum
3. Superior part of anal canal
4. Epithelium of urinary bladder & most of urethra

7

Function of stomodeum

Allows for communication with amniotic fluid

8

Foregut is supplied by

Celiac artery

9

Midgut is supplied by

Superior mesenteric artery

10

Hindgut is supplied by

Inferior mesenteric artery

11

Polyhydramnios

Too much amniotic fluid

12

Cause of tracheoesophogeal fistula

Tracheoesophageal septum develops incorrectly in wrong place
Allows trachea to communicate with distal esophagus

13

Gastroesophageal reflux

Acid from the stomach is not prevented from flowing retrograde into the esophagus

14

Cause of congenital diaphgragmatic hernia

Failure of pleuroperitoneal canals to become obliterated ➡️ intestines enter thoracic cavity through foramen Bochdalek

15

Cause of eventration of diaphragm

Diaphragm is poorly muscularized which allows abdominal visecera to ascend into chest and compress the lung
Results in lung hypoplasia

16

Cause of paralysis of diaphragm

Damage to phrenic nerve during traumatic delivery (usually of large baby)

17

Cause of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

Excessive development of the muscle around the pylorus during the first few weeks of life
Outlet is hypertrophied➡️ vomiting

18

2 types of biliary atresia

1. Intrahepatic
2. Extrahepatic

19

Atelectasis

Collapse of portion of the lung

20

Bronchiectasis

Abcesses in the lung

21

Meconium ileus associated with

Cystic fibrosis

22

Meconium ileus

Meconium is increaed viscosity; so thick it cannot move through the bowel and creates a functional intestinal obstruction in distal ileum

23

Cause of duodenal atresia

Failure of the gut to recanalize after the normal stage of epithelial proliferation during development
May involve genetic predisposition

24

Omphalocele

Defect in midline abdominal wall that causes intestines and other abdominal organs (i.e liver) to exist outside the body; covered by perineal membrane

25

Gastroschisis

Non-midline abdominal wall defect (usually on right side) that causes intestines to be located outside the body
No membrane covers intestines
Not associated with MCA

26

Cause of malrotation

Failure of normal rotation of the midgut around its mesenteric attachment during development
Leads to absence of normal fixation of the gut to the body wall

27

3 types of malrotation

1. Reversed rotation
2. Mixed rotation
3. Nonrotation

28

Ladd's bands

Run from abnormally placed anterior cecum to the posterior peritoneum and obstruct the duodenum

29

Volvulus

Sudden twisting if the gut caused by abnormal anchoring of the intestine to the body wall
Causes intestinal obstruction

30

Cause of jejenal/ ileum atresia

Vascular accidents late during fetal life with ischemic necrosis followed by resorption of the affected regions of the bowel

31

Cause of intussusception

Section of bowel invaginates into the lumen of the distal bowel creating a complete obstruction

32

Cause of Meckels diverticulum

Presence of remnant of vitelline duct

33

Cause of duplication

Failure of recanalization of the intestine following epithelial proliferation during normal development

34

Ileus

Functional obstruction of peristalsis of the small intestine
Usually results from severe illness

35

Cause of Hirsphrung disease

Failure of neural crest cells to migrate caudally to the end of the bowel➡️ absence of autonomic innervation in distal bowel (varying lengths)
Prevents bowel from relaxing resulting in functional obstruction

36

Imperforate anus

Anal or rectal atresia (infant fails to pass meconium normally)

37

Inguinal hernia

Enlarged opening at the inguinal ring which communicates with the abdomen (loops of bowel in hernia sac)

38

Yolk sac divided into 3 parts

1. Foregut
2. Midgut
3. Hindgut