Caregiver-infant interactions in humans Flashcards Preview

A-level psychology (A) > Caregiver-infant interactions in humans > Flashcards

Flashcards in Caregiver-infant interactions in humans Deck (14):

What is bodily contact?

Physical interactions between carer and infant


What research supports bodily contact?

Klaus and Kennell (1976) compared mums who had extended physical contact with their babies lasting several hours a day with mums who had contact with their baby during feeding in the first three days after birth. One month later the mums with greater physical contact cuddled their babies more and made greater eye-contact with them.


What is the evaluation of bodily contact?

A practical application of this was that hospitals placed mothers and babies in the same room in the days following birth rather than the previous practice of rooming them apart, to encourage the formation of attachments.


What is mimicking?

Infants seem to have an innate ability to imitate carer's facial expressions - biological device to aid formation of attachment


What research supports mimicking?

Melzoff and Moore (1977) found that infants aged 2-3 weeks tended to mimick adults' specific facial expressions and hand movements, supporting the idea that infant mimicry is an innate ability to aid the formation of attachments


What is a caregiverese?

Adults use a modified form of vocal language which is high-pitched, song-like and slow


What research supports caregiverese?

Papousek et al (1991) found that the tendency to use a rising tone to show an infant that it was their turn in the interaction was cross-cultural as American, Chinese and German mothers all exhibited the behaviour


What is the evaluation for caregiverese?

Caregiverese has been seen to be used by adults to all infants not just those they have an attachment with, which suggests that although usage aids communication between adults and infants it cannot be claimed to be specifically to help form attachments


What is interactional synchrony ?

The co-ordinated rhythmic exchanges between carer and infant


What research supports interactional synchrony?

Condor and Sander (1974) analysed frame by frame video recordings of infant's movements to find they co-ordinated their actions in sequence with adults' speech to form a kind of turn-taking conversation, supporting the idea of interactional synchrony


What is the evaluation of interactional synchrony?

Interactional synchrony is not found in all cultures; Le Vine et al (1994) reported that Kenyan mothers have little interactions with their infants but infants do have a high proportion of secure attachments


What is reciprocity?

The interaction of similar behaviour patterns between carer and infant.


What is attachment?

A two-way enduring emotional tie to a specific other person


What is the evidence for attachment?

Separation anxiety and stranger anxiety