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Flashcards in 2 ainsworth follow ons Deck (11):

What was the aim of Van Ljzendoorn and Kroonenberg's study?

To assess whether within separate samples there was a pattern in the distribution of different attachment types and to assess the extent of inter and intra cultural differences in attachment types in different samples.


What was Van Ljzendoorn and Kroonenberg's procedure?

A meta analysis of 32 studies from 8 countries that used the stranger situation procedure to assess child-mother attachments and which classified attachments as either type A,B or C
1,9990 separate strange situation classifications were used. All studies comprised of at least 35 mother-infant pairs with infants below 2 years old.


What was Van Ljzendoorn and Kroonenberg's findings?

Overall attachment was 21% type A, 67% type B and 12% type C
In samples from all countries except Germany the modal attachment type was type B
The highest proportion of type A attachment was found in Germany
Intra cultural differences were often greater than inter cultural differences
Type A attachment found more in western cultures while type C attachment was found more in Israel, China and Japan


What were the conclusions from Van Ljzendoorn and Kroonenberg's study?

The data suggests there is a difference in the pattern of cross-cultural attachment types across cultures
Intra-cultural differences often greater than inter cultural ones
Overall patterns of attachment - similar to what Ainsworth found
Predominance of type B in all cultures


What does Van Ljzendoorn and Kroonenberg's research link with?

Harlow and the monkeys
Bowlby's MDH and continuity theory


What are some weaknesses of Van Ljzendoorn and Kroonenberg's study?

Data drawn from cultures not represented in the meta-analysis e.g. south America and Africa - could be required before universal conclusions can be drawn
Some intra-cultural differences may be due to socio-economic differences for instance some USA samples were middle class and some were working class


Why is imposed etic a weakness?

Common in cross-cultural studies this is where researchers use techniques that are only relevant to their culture to study and draw conclusions about another. - so the researchers may have analysed the findings in a biased way, reflecting their own cultural beliefs and wrongly imposing these on other cultures


What is a strength of Van Ljzendoorn and Kroonenberg's study?

Since intra-cultural differences were often found in different samples from the same researcher, it suggests that the differences were not due to methodological differences


What was the aim of McMahon-True's research?

To assess whether infant attachment types are different in a culture that raises infants using natural parenting methods and whether attachment security was related to the quality of mother infant communications


What was McMahon-True's procedure?

42 mothers and infant pairs from rural villages were used as participants, with infants ranging in age from 10 months to 12.5 months at first assessment
The strange situation testing method was used to assess attachment styles and the results were compared to those from 4 north American samples with a total of 306 mother-infant pairs tested


What were McMahon-True's findings?

Dogon - 0% type A, 67% type B, 8% type C, 25% type D
North American - 23% type A, 55% type B, 8% type C, 15% type D
Many Dogan children had their grandmothers as principal carer during the day but attachment classifications were unaffected by the type of primary caregiver as mothers remained closely involved (regular breastfeeding and co-sleeping during night
Positive correlation found between maternal sensitivity and infant security ratings and between mother infant communications and infant security ratings.