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Flashcards in Caries Risk Assessment Deck (19)
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1

What factors are necessary for caries

Tooth
Substrate
Flora - strep. Mutans
Time

2

Give examples of general caries risk factors

Social
General health

3

Give examples of local caries risk factors

Oral hygiene
Diet
Fluoride experience
Past caries experience
Orthodontic treatment

4

What are the 7 elements of caries risk

Clinical evidence
Dietary habits
Social history
Fluoride use
Plaque control
Medical history

5

How can caries experience class a patient as high caries risk

dmft >=5
DMFT >=5
Caries in 6’s at 6 years old
3 years caries increment >=3

6

What other pieces of clinical evidence would make a patient high caries risk

Orthodontics - fixed appliance therapy
Prosthodontics - fixed or removable

7

In diet, what would make a patient high caries risk

>= 3 sugar intakes per day

8

What in the diet can increase caries risk

High frequency more of an issue than volume of sugar
Highly processed carbohydrates more carcinogenic than natural sugars
Natural sugars can still cause harm eg - lactose in early childhood caries (nursing bottle caries)

9

What is important about a diet diary

Patient fills in honestly
One of the days should be at the weekend

10

What in social history can affect a patients carries risk

SIMD category
Education
Unemployment
Work stressors
Single patient families
Violence
Inequalities and access to healthcare
Dependents

11

What role does fluoride play in caries development

More likely to have caries development without fluoridated toothpaste or if no fluoride in water supple
1000ppm is ideal

12

What are the actions of fluoride

Incorporation into enamel crystal to form fluoroapatite which is more caries resistant (resistant to demineralisation) than hydroxyapatite
Interferes with the adhesion force of bacteria reducing their ability to stick to the surface of the teeth

13

What role does plaque control play in caries development

Oral hygiene:
Poor technique
Irregular brushing
Unassisted (very young/old, manual dexterity issues)
Access to toothbrush/toothpaste
Difficulty due to changes - mixed dentition, orthodontics, gaps, recession

14

What role does saliva play in caries development

Amount you have
How quickly it flows
Buffering capacity - capacity to neutralise acids is different for different people
pH notable in people who have had acid erosion from fizzy drinks etc
Viscosity - thick saliva isn’t as good for washing away

15

What role does medication play in caries development

Can cause xerostomia
Other drug side effects make OH difficult - mucositis
Free sugars make medicines more palatable
Frequency of sugars containing medicine
Recreational drug use/rehabilitation from drug addiction
Social convention - bringing sweets to ill people

16

Describe the social factors of a typical high caries risk child

Mother’s education secondary only
Poor dental attender
Family unit - single parent, unemployed

17

What are additional considerations for infants and toddlers for caries risk

Mother’s caries rate
Prolonged nursing habits
Bottle/pacifier at bedtime
Cariogenic snacking
No tooth cleaning
Little fluoride exposure

18

Describe a typical high caries risk adult

Low level of education
Attends only when they identify a problem
Social difficulties
Sweet tooth - with poor OG
Sugar containing meds or meds affecting saliva
Root caries
Secondary caries

19

What are the 8 elements of preventative programme

Radiographs
Toothbrushing instruction
F Varnish
F Summplementation
Diet advice
Fissure sealants
Sugar medicine