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Flashcards in Cartilage Deck (43)
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1

What is the function of cartilage in general?

Specialized connective tissue Provides resilient support Resists compressive forces Capability to regain shape and size Smooth, cushioned surface for articulating bones

2

What are the cells in cartilage called? 

Chondrocytes

 

Embedded within extensive extracellular matrix (cartilage matrix) 

3

What are the three components of cartilage matrix? 

  1. Fibers
  2. Ground substance
  3. Noncollagenous multiadhesive glycoproteins 

4

What gives mechanical stability to the ground substance? 

Fibers

5

What is the primary type of fiber found in the cartilage matrix? 

Cartilage-specific collagens 

Type II is predominant form 

6

Collagen found at the periphery of the chondrocyte and facilitates the link between the chondrocyte and the cartilage matrix 

Type VI Collagen 

7

Stabilizes type II collagen by facilitating collagen fibril-proteoglycan interaction

Type IX

8

Associated with hypertrophic regions in cartilage where it organizes collagen fibrils into a 3D lattice 

Type X

9

Regulates type II collage fibril size

Type XI

10

What is the predominant component of cartilage matrix? 

The Ground Substance 

Hydrated gel composed of water, ions and proteoglycans

11

What is the predominant proteoglycan monomer?

Aggrecan 

12

What are multimolecular proteoglycan aggregates? 

Aggrecan monomers bound to a central hyaluronate backbone 

Have dense negative charge -- keeps the aggregates expanded d/t repulsion, also water and sodium ions are attracted to hydrate the gel matrix

13

Small regulatory and structural proteins that influence interactions between chondrocytes and the ECM 

Noncollagenous Multiadhesive Glycoproteins

14

What are some of the noncollagenous proteins? 

Chondronectin

Tenascin

Anchorin CII 

15

What are the multiadhesive glycoproteins clinically valuable markers for? 

Cartilage turnover and degeneration

16

What is the function of chondrocytes? 

They produce and secrete the components of cartilage matrix.

Also secrete enzymes that can degrade cartilage matrix. 

Maintain the integrity of the cartilage matrix 

17

What is the function of chondroclasts? What are they derived from? 

Multinucleated cells that degrade calcified cartilage 

Derived from monocytes and are similar to osteoclasts

18

What are some hormones that increase synthesis of cartilage? 

Growth hormone

Thyroxin

Testosterone

19

What are some hormones that decrease synthesis of cartilage? 

Cortisone

Hydrocortisone

Estradiol 

20

What are cartilage elements often enclosed in?

A Perichondrium 

21

22

What is the outer part of the perichondrium?

Fibrous connective tissue (primarily type I collagen) secreted by fibroblasts

Contains a capillary plexus, nerves and lymphatics 

23

What is the inner part of the perichondrium? 

Contains flattened chondrogenic cells that have the potential to become chondroblasts.

24

How are chondrocytes nourised? 

Diffusion through the cartilage matrix 

25

Do chondrocytes have a high or low metabolic rate? 

High -- despite being surrounded by an avascaular matrix 

26

What are the three main types of cartilage? 

Hyaline

Elastic

Fibrocartilage 

27

What is the most common type of cartilage? How does it appaear? 

Hyaline cartilage

Bluish-white, glassy appearance

28

What surrounds the chondrocyte acting as a biochemical buffer between the cell and the territorial matrix? 

Pericellular matrix 

29

Is a perichondrium present around hyaline cartilage elements? 

Yes

30

What are two types of specialized hyaline cartilage? 

Articular cartilage 

Epiphyseal plates