What is folic acid necessary for?
Normal cell differentiation
What are the daily recommended intake values for folic acid?
Women of child bearing age: 400 mcg folic acid
During pregnancy: 600 mcg folic acid
What is a potential risk of folate deficiency during pregnancy?
Malformation of the CNS
Crucial during early stage of pregnancy -- can result in ancephalopathy/spina bifida
Why mighy Cod liver oil be detrimental to a pregnant women or her developing fetus?
Vitamin A toxicity
Retinol (animal form) of vitamin A -- stored in liver
Can lead to teratogenic effects during pregnancy -- birth defects, spontaneous abortion, influences embryogenesis
What is the fetal-origins hypothesis of chronic disease risk?
Exposure to adverse nutritional conditions during critical growth affects body structure in fetus
Low birth weight infants related to heart disease, stroke
If a baby is ONLY breast fed, what is a potential nutritional risk factor?
Vitamin D deficiency: bone mineral metabolism of calcium, breast milk is inadequate of vit D, increased awareness of imiportance of sunblock to prevent skin cancer -- prevents vit D activation from sun
What is the recommended supplement of vitamin D3 daily for all breast fed infant?
What test do you use to measure levels of vitamin D?
25 hydroxy vitamin D
What is essential fatty acid deficiency?
When linoleic (omega-6) and alpha-linoleic (omega-3) cannot be synthesized
Developes between 2-10 days in infants and children
Develops around 10-20 days in adults
Prevent with as little as 3% calories form fat
What are some symptoms of EFA deficiency?
Compromised wound healing
Dry scaly skin
What is the adolescence perfect storm for decreased calcium?
Elevated nutrition needs as a teenager but also diet experimentation might not be ideal
What are some food sources of calcium?
Dairy products, dark leafy greens, supplemented foots (almond milk)
What are some factors that can interfere wiht calcium absorption?
Phytates in grains
What is the adequate calcium intake?
1300 mg in 9-18 yo
1000 mg in 19-50 yo