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1

What intrauterine factors affect fetal growth?

1. Maternal factors: poor wt. gain in 3rd trimester, poor nutrition, preeclampsia, maternal prescription or illicit drug use, maternal infections, uterine abnormalities, maternal asthma.
2. Placental abnormalities: placenta previa, placental abruptions or abnormal umbilical vessel insertions may lead to suboptimal fetal growth.
3. Fetal abnormalities: Fetal malformations (eg renal dysplasia or a diaphragmatic hernia), metabolic disease, chromosomal abnormalities (such as trisomy 13), and congenital infections
4. Multiple gestation

2

Effects of Alcohol (ethanol) on developing fetus:

1. Increases risk of fetal alcohol syndrome: Facial abnormalities, growth deficiencies, CNS dysfunction (mental retardation, poor motor skills and hand-eye coordination, difficulties with memory, attention and judgement)
2. There is no "safe" amount of alcohol that can be consumed during pregnancy to ensure that fetal alcohol syndrome does not occur.

3

Effects of Tobacco on developing fetus:

Increases risk for low birth weight. No characteristic facies.

4

Effects of Marijuana on developing fetus:

Distinctive effects of THC have not been identified, but infants born to mothers who smoke marijuana more than 6 times per week often have a withdrawal-like syndrome (high-pitched cry and tremulousness) in the first days after birth.

5

Effects of Cocaine and other stimulants on developing fetus:

1. Vasoconstriction, leading to placental insufficiency and low birth weight
2. May lead to subtle yet significant later deficits in cognitive performance, including information processing, and attention to tasks

6

Babies born to mothers who have HIV have what chance of HIV infection?

About a 25-30 percent chance.

7

What do some states mandate offering to women during pregnancy?

HIV testing

8

What events increase the risk of vertical (mother-to-fetus) HIV transmission?

Freq., unprotected sex during pregnancy, Amniocentesis, Advanced maternal HIV disease, Breastfeeding, Premature delivery (before 37 weeks). In the era before anti-retrovirals were used during pregnancy: 1. Membrane rupture greater than 4 hrs prior to delivery 2. Vaginal delivery

9

What has been shown to decrease the risk of vertical HIV transmission?

1. Zidovudine (anti-retroviral drug)
2. Caesarean delivery if prior to onset of labor and membrane rupture
3. No breastfeeding

10

What is metabolic screening?

Looks for inborn errors of metabolism. Other metabolic conditions have a more insidious onset. The newborn screen helps test for conditions that might not be readily picked up.

11

What can inborn errors of metabolism present with in neonates?

Anorexia, lethargy, vomiting and seizures.

12

What metabolic conditions do all states screen for?

Phenylketonuria (PKU) and hypothyroidism.

13

What metabolic conditions do some states screen for?

Galactosemia, biotinidase deficiency, hemoglobinopathy, maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), homocystinuria, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, CF, G6PD deficiency, and toxoplasmosis. Many states now screen for more than 30 diseases using tandem mass spectrometry.

14

Hearing screening:

All newborns are screened for congenital deafness.

15

Critical congenital heart defects screening:

Guidelines published in 2011 recommended the implementation of screening newborns for significant congenital heart defects. Screening would consist of the measurement of oxygen saturation.

16

What are the benefits of breast feeding?

Human milk is recognized by the AAP as the optimal food for infants. (Breast milk plus fortifier is recommended for premature babies).
1. BM stimulates GI growth and motility.
2. Dec risk of acute illness during time infant is fed breast milk
3. Lower rates of diarrhea, acute and recurrent otits media and urinary tract infections
4. Small neurodevelopmental advantages, including cognitive and motor development

17

What are the absolute contraindications to breastfeeding?

Rare and may include maternal HIV infection, active maternal drug abuse and infants with galactosemia.

18

When is exclusive breast feeding recommended?

For the first 6 months of live, and then breastfeeding plus complementary foods until the infant is at least 12 months of age.

19

There are associations between the duration of breast feeding and a reduction in what?

Incidence of obesity, cancer, adult coronary artery disease, certain allergic conditions, type 1 DM and inflammatory bowel disease.

20

What are the potential maternal benefits of breast feeding?

Decreased risk of breast and ovarian cancer and osteoporosis.

21

How often should mothers nurse their babies?

Whenever there are signs of hunger, which often is 8-12 times per day.

22

What should be done prior to discharge with breast feeding?

Evaluate mother and baby for adequacy of latch-on, suckling and milk transfer and progress of lactogenesis (milk production). Provide mothers with education, resources and follow up before discharge.

23

What should be assessed 24-48 hours after discharge?

An in-home lactation specialist or physician should assess adequate urine or stool output as well as weight change.

24

What are the 3 leadings causes of death for adolescents in the US?

Accidents, homicide and suicide.

25

What is the HEEADSSS interview for adolescents?

Home, Education/Employment, Eating disorder screening, Activities/Affiliations/Aspirations, Drugs (and alcohol, tobacco and steroids), Sexuality, Suicidal behavior (along with depression and mental health) and Safety (abuse, fights, weapons, seatbelts, etc)

26

What is important to remember about infants of adolescent mothers?

1. Greater risk for lower brith weight, partly due to increased risk of pregnancy-induced HTN and preeclampsia and vertically acquired sexually transmitted diseases.
2. Infants born to adolescents also have poorer developmental outcomes

27

What other factors increase the risk of neonatal problems?

1. Poverty
2. Poor or nonexistent prenatal care
3. Maternal illness (mental and physical)
4. Maternal high-risk behaviors (illicit drug use, unprotected sex)
5. Family history of congenital/genetic disorders
6. Poor nutrition
7. Premature delivery

28

Newborn resuscitation:

In addition to remembering the ABCs , keep in mind some of the special features of routine newborn resuscitation:
1. Infants have large surface area relative to their body weight and therefore can experience significant hypothermia from evaporation.
2. Warm and dry infant immediately.
3. Remove any wet linens.
4. Stimulate infant to assist in a vigorous ry, which helps to clear the lungs and mobilize secretions
5. Suction amniotic fluid from infant's nose and mouth to help clear to upper airway.

29

Some newborn infants require further resuscitation, such as:

1. Blow-by oxygen
2. Positive pressure (bag-valve mask) ventilation with oxygen
3. Chest compressions
4. Medications

30

What are the five components of the APGAR score?

Appearance, Pulse (HR), Grimace (facial expression), Activity (neuromuscular tone), Respirations (respiratory effort)