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Flashcards in Case 2 anatomy Deck (38):

what is the peritoneum

a double layered, serous membrane, which lines the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and invests the viscera.


intraperitoneal organ

An organ that is suspended from the body wall by a mesentery


retroperitoneal organ

An organ that is pushed up against the body wall and is only partially covered by peritoneum


lesser omentrum

A double layer of peritoneum that connects the liver with the lesser curvature of the stomach


greater omentrum

A double layer of peritoneum that connects the greater curvature of the stomach with the transverse colon



A double layer of peritoneum that connects an intraperitoneal organ with the body wall (eg. The mesentery, transverse mesocolon, mesoappendix)


parietal peritoneum

The serous membrane that lines the inner surface of the body wall


visceral peritoneum

The serous membrane that covers the external surfaces of the abdominal organs


peritoneal cavity

The fluid-filled potential space between the parietal and visceral peritoneums. enables the organs of the abdomen to slide smoothly over each other.


greater sac

the largest portion of the peritoneal cavity


lesser sac

The smallest portion of the peritoneal cavity which lies posterior to the lesser omentum and stomach


hepatorenal recess

The part of the peritoneal cavity which lies inferior to the liver and anterior to the kidney and suprarenal gland


infracolic compartment

The part of the peritoneal cavity inferior to the transverse mesocolon


left paracolic gutter

The depression/recess lateral to the descending colon


right paracolic gutter

The depression/recess lateral to the ascending colon


subphrenic space

The part of the peritoneal cavity which lies between the diaphragm and liver


supracolic compartment

The part of the peritoneal cavity which lies above the transverse mesocolon


The lesser sac communicates with the greater sac at a small opening termed the

epiploic foramen/omental foramen


boundaries of the epiploic foramen

anterior - hepatoduodenal ligament. Posterior - inferior vena cava. Superior - liver inferior - superior part duodenum


The hepatoduodenal ligament is formed from the free border of the lesser omentum. Three structures pass in the ligament on route to the liver:

hepatic artery and duct, portal vein.


umbilical folds

A single median umbilical fold extends from the apex of the bladder to the umbilicus. It overlies the median umbilical ligament. There are two medial umbilical folds which lie lateral to the median fold; they overlie the medial umbilical ligaments. Two lateral umbilical folds lie lateral to the medial fold.


what are the umbilical ligaments remenants of

the midian ligament is a remenant of the urachus


innervation of the peritoneum

The parietal peritoneum receives somatic innervation from the nerves that supply the abdominal wall. It is therefore sensitive to pain which can clearly be localised.

The visceral peritoneum receives autonomic innervation.



Extends from the lower part of oesophagus to the second part the duodenum and also includes the liver, spleen and part of the pancreas. organs: duodenum proximal to major papilla. liver. stomach. gall bladder. spleen. pancreus.



Extends from the second part of the duodenum to the distal third of the transverse colon, it also includes part of the pancreas. organs: proximal 2/3 transverse colon. appendix. jejunum. duodenum distal to major papilla. ileum. hepatic flexure. caecum. ascending colon.



Extends from the distal third of transverse colon to the proximal part of the anus.organs-anus. splenic flexure. descending colon. distal 1/3 transverse colon. sigmoid colon.


blood supply of GI tract

forgut - coeliac artery. midgut - superior mesenteric artery. hindgut - inferior mesenteric.


lymph of the GI tract

first regional i.e liver - hepatic nodes.then into regional sections like forgut into coeliac nodes.


autonomic innervation of the GI tract

Preganglionic sympathetic fibres arise in the lateral horn of grey matter of the thoracolumbar regions of the spinal cord. Their axons pass in the ventral root, spinal nerve, ventral ramus and white ramus communicantes to enter the sympathetic chain. They pass through the chain without synapsing and continue on to the prevertebral ganglia as splanchnic nerves. They terminate in prevertebral ganglia by synapsing with the postsynaptic fibres that pass to the effector organ. foregut-coeliac ganglion. greater splanic nerve. T5-9.
midgut - lesser splanic nerve, pregang T10-11. sup mesenteric ganglion.
hindgut-inf mesenteric ganglion. T12 l1. lumbar splanic nerve.


Which nerve provides parasympathetic innervation to the gut?



sensory innervation of the GI tract

Visceral afferent information for reflexes (such as stretch to the intestinal wall) is conveyed with parasympathetic fibres.
Visceral afferent pain fibres are conveyed with sympathetic fibres. Therefore pain afferents from the foregut enter the spinal cord at levels T5-9, those from the midgut at T10-11 andc from the hindgut at T12-L1. This accounts for why referred pain from the abdominal viscera is perceived on specific regions of the abdominal wall.


As its name suggests the submucosal plexus is located in the submucosa. What is the other name that is given to this plexus?



enteric nervous system

The enteric nervous system is often considered to be the third part of the autonomic nervous system. It consists of two nerve plexuses.The myenteric plexus is responsible for gastointestinal motility whereas the submucosal plexus senses environmental changes in the lumen and regulates gastrointestinal blood flow and epithelial cell function.

The enteric nervous system can function autonomously but it communicates with the central nervous system and is regulated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts of the autonomic nervous system.

One plexus is located between the inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of muscle in the muscularis externa and the other is located within the submucosa.


functions of the stomach

storage of ingested food, control of chyme into duodenum, protection against pathogens.


what is located anterior to the stomach

abdominal wall. liver. diaphragm.


what is located posterior to the stomach

kidneys. spleen. suprarenal gland. lesser sac. splenic artery. transverse mesocolon. pancreus. transverse colon.


what branches of the coeliac trunk supply the stomach

common hepatic, left gastric, splenic.


arteries and veins and nerves to stomach

follow short gastric, left right right left gastroepiploic