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Flashcards in case 1 anatomy Deck (19):

a vertical line that extends from the midpoint of the clavicle to the midinguinal point.

midclavicular line


a horizontal plane that passes through the inferior border of the tenth costal cartilage and lies at the level of L2.



a horizontal plane that passes through the iliac tubercles and lies at the level of L5.



a horizontal plane that lies halfway between the umbilicus and the xiphisternum, or midway between the upper border of the manubrium and the symphasis pubis and lies at the level of L1.



what're the 9 regions of the abdominal cavity

right and left hypochondriac. Right and left iliac/inguinal. hypogastric/suprapubic. epigastric and umbilical. right and left lumbar


four quadrants of the abdomen

The median plane is a vertical line drawn through the umbilicus and the transumbilical plane is a horizontal line drawn through the umbilicus. These lines divide the abdomen into the right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ) and left lower quadrant (LLQ).


what organs are in the upper quadrants.

kidneys, suprarenal glands, liver, stomach, gall bladder, spleen, splencnic flexure, hepatic flexure,


what organs are in the lower quadrants

ureter, ovaries, appendix, caecum, uterine tube, sigmoid colon


anterolateral abdominal wall

thoracic cage contributes to the superior part. bound by costal margin and xiphisternum superiorly. Inferiorly by iliac and pubic crests, pubic symphasis and inguinal ligament. skin - campers - scarpas fascia - areolar connective tissue - muscles ( I,E oblique, transversus abdominus, rectus abdominus and pyramidalis-80% people). anteriorly the I E oblique and transversus abdominus become apeunurotic-fibrous sheeth that encloses rectus abdominus.


functions of the muscles in the anterior abdominal wall

protect viscera from injury. contract during inspiration, defacation, vomiting, urination, parturition. lateral flexion and rotation of the trunk.


what are the two main arteries which supply the anterior abdominal wall

superior from internal thoracic and inf epigastric arteries. from external iliac


where do most lymph from above the transumbilical plane drain to

axillary lymph nodes


what innervates the anteriolateral abdominal wall

T7 to L1


where does the superficial inguinal ring lie

superolateral to the pubic tubercle


what forms the floors of the inguinal canal

The anterior wall is formed by the aponeurosis of the external oblique, and reinforced by the internal oblique muscle laterally.
The posterior wall is formed by the transversalis fascia.
The roof is formed by the transversalis fascia, internal oblique and transversus abdominis.
The floor is formed by the inguinal ligament


rings of inguinal canal

The two openings to the inguinal canal are known as rings. The deep (internal) ring is found above the midpoint of the inguinal ligament. which is lateral to the epigastric vessels. The ring is created by the transversalis fascia, which invaginates to form a covering of the contents of the inguinal canal.

The superficial (external) ring marks the end of the inguinal canal, and lies just superior to the pubic tubercle. It is a triangle shaped opening, formed by the evagination of the external oblique, which forms another covering of the inguinal canal contents. This opening contains intercrural fibres, which run perpendicular to the aponeurosis of the external oblique and prevent the ring from widening.


What name is given to the endoabdominal fascia that is located in the region of the anterolateral abdominal wall?

transversalis fascia


four layers of the GI tract

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis ecterna, serous/adventitia


rectus sheath

Anteriorly the external and internal oblique muscles and the transversus abdominis muscles become aponeurotic. The aponeurotic fibres merge together to from a strong fibrous sheath that encloses the rectus abdominis and pyramidalis muscles. The anterior and posterior components of the sheath differ according to location. look at colouring book for more details