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Flashcards in Case Studies Deck (66)
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What is Kenyas GDP?

$1600 per capita


Where is primary industry located in Kenya?

North East province: livestock, too dry for crops
Nyanza and Western provinces: farming - tobacco, fruits, tea, coffee
Magadi: Trona mining


Where is secondary industry located in Kenya?

Central province: labour supply and transport in Nairobi (textiles and food products)
Coast province: cement works due to nearby limestone deposits


Where is tertiary industry located in Kenya?

Coast province: Mombasa, coral reefs
Rift Valley: Lake Turkana, Amboseli national park, Aberdare mountain range, Masai Mara tribes


What are the disadvantages of tourism in Kenya?

Leakage of income, drugs and crime, damage to environment and habitats


Describe the distribution of Nike's factories

75% of workforce in Asia, 750 factories, 34 factories in Vietnam


What are the disadvantages of Nike in Vietnam?

Poor working conditions
Illegal to unionise in Vietnam + lack of jobs = people don't speak out
Investment could be transferred to other counties quickly
Concerns over Nike's political influence because of this
Nikes image may help to undermine Vietnamese culture


What are the advantages of Nike in Vietnam?

Good pay
Improves skills
Attracts other MNCs to the country
Regular wage, meals, medical services, training
Sets standards for indigenous companies
Tax helps pay for infrastructure
Positive multiplier effect
Improved working conditions
Pressure groups like Human Rights First have caused the minimum wage to be raised to 17
Policy to promote fair working conditions


Where is primary industry located in the UK?

Lincolnshire and East Anglia: flat, fertile land and mild climate
South Wales: heavy industry, coal fields and iron ore


Where is secondary industry located in the UK?

North East England: chemical processing, off shore oil rigs
Merseyside: car manufacturers due to government grants (Jaguar Cars at Halewood plant after £50mil grant)


Where is tertiary industry located in the U.K.?

Cumbria: Lake District national park, scenery (scafell pike) = tourism
London: retail & tourism due to public transport and easy delivery of goods


Where is quaternary industry located in the U.K.?

Cambridge: high tech science parks, educated workforce from uni, M11
M4 corridor: workers from reading, bristol and oxford Unis, motorway is good for communication


What are the problems in Tanzania?

80% of people rely on subsistence agriculture, timber products -> soil erosion -> poor soil fertility -> desertification
30-35% of Tanzanians are malnourished
Low farm incomes, valuable households due to owning few assets


How does Goat Aid address the problems in Tanzania?

The donated £25 buys a vaccinated goat which provides meat and milk -> less malnutrition -> farmers are more productive. Goat manure = fertiliser -> more crops can be grown -> increased income. Goats are bred and sold -> farming business -> raised standard of living -> children can go to school etc.


Is Goat Aid sustainable?

Concerns because they need space and veterinary care, and forests are cleared when grazing
However, the research is extensive and the model is only applied when: the rainfall is above 500mm, the area is densely populated, there is sufficient labour, there are goat feed suppliers nearby and goats milk is culturally acceptable


Why do palm oil plantations harm the environment in Borneo?

Deforestation and terracing -> soil erosion, lack of crop rotation -> desertification, delicate ecosystem -> leaching (thin soil) -> desertification, fertilisers -> eutrophication


How do palm oil plantations in Borneo lead to conflicts?

Social: Dayak tribe bribed (using materialistic things I.e. Cigarettes) which changes their culture, the gases and smoke disrupt air traffic and cause health problems
Economic: Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia are LEDCs so need money for food, educating children etc and palm oil is economically sustainable due to its product cycle


How can palm oil be made more sustainable?

The RSPO is a group of many NGOs and other organisations that work together to make palm oil sustainable. So far they have made 10% of palm oil production comply with their guidelines and they have made important steps forward towards protecting the environment, supporting the social and economic importance of palm oil in the countries it is produced and they involve companies, retailers and producers


Which flood for an LEDC?

Bangladesh, 2004


What were the impacts of the Bangladesh flood?

750 people died
Many people injured
30 million people homeless (chars) -> poverty
Major infrastructure destroyed -> difficult to respond
100,000 people in Dhaka suffered from diarrhoea due to flood waters
40% of Dhaka underwater
Rice crops destroyed


What were the causes of the Bangladesh flood? (And how was it worsened?)

Caused by:
Himalayan snow melt (global warming = increased glacier melt) caused increased surface run off
Deforestation -> less interception -> increased surface run off
River confluence
Annual cyclones and monsoons
Irrigation -> aggregation (sediment build up which reduces carrying capacity) -> increased flooding behind aggregation points
Worsened by:
Global warming
Expansion of Dhaka (concrete - more impermeable surfaces)


How was the Bangladesh flood managed?

Short term management mitigated initial impacts - NGOs i.e. Water Aid
UN fundraising appeal didn't raise money fast enough
Long term sustainable responses: cluster villages, adapting farming techniques (really develop!!)


What were the causes of the Boscastle flood?

Confluence of Valency and Jordan
Located at the base of a v-shaped valley so high levels of anti Eden rainfall were funnelled through the town
Saturated ground - precipitation in the month prior, increased surface run off
Human factors:
Deforestation decreased interception
Concrete in the town - impermeable surface
Low bridges - acted like dams by trapping debris


What were the impacts of the boscastle flood?

50 vehicles swept out to sea (also environmental impact)
6 buildings swept away
Electricity water and sewage systems damaged
Loss of possessions - psychological
Insurance companies
90% of economy relied on tourism - businesses (shops) were forced to close, tourism lost for the remaining year
Cost of building and infrastructure repairs


What were the responses to the Boscastle flood?

Quick emergency service response -> no deaths, 150 airlifted
Long term: 1 in 400 year flood but still £4.6 million defence scheme launched (will be more common due to global warming). It included raising bridges, widening the channel (increase carrying capacity, reduce lag time)


What is the structure for the Dorset case study?

Sketch map
Discordant coastline explanation/diagram
Depositional landforms - Portland tombolo
Erosional landforms - Lulworth cove, arch stack stump diagram with labelled old Harry and Durdle door


What is the structure of the river Severn case study?

Sketch map (plan), intro (4,409 sq miles)
V-shaped valley at Plynlimon Hills- tourism, hydroelectric power (social/economic benefits)
Iron bridge gorge and Severn Breaks its neck
Helical flow -> meander -> oxbow lakes (Tewkesbury)
Flood plains and natural levees (housing shortage)
Severn Estuary


What is the structure of the north Norfolk case study?

Sketch map with annotated rock types
Salthouse - soft engineering, agricultural land, managed retreat -> salt marshes and north Norfolk wildlife trust. Successful (sediment cell and Blakeney point spit)
Cromer - hard engineering
Happisburgh - managed retreat
Sea Palling - advance the line, high scientific land value
Conflict: social and environmental land value, ccag, tourism and visual obtrusion
Overall managed effectively in comparison to the budget: economic and environmental value was prioritised


What were the causes of the Haiti earthquake?

Conservative plate boundary: NA, gonave, Caribbean
Near to Port au Prince (15 miles)
Magnitude 7


What were the effects of the Haiti earthquake and how was is worsened?

220,000 deaths, over 1 million people homeless, waterborne diseases up to 2 years later, psychological suffering
30,000 commercial building destroyed, damaged clothing industry, loss of jobs
Worsened due to 40% unemployed -> poor quality housing