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Holderness coast

-erosion rates of 2m a year
-sea defences in Mappleton (1991) affect the LSD down stream
-geology is boulder clay and chalk (easily eroded)
-strong fetch from the North East+destructive waves
-slumping prone form weathering (mechanical)


Coastal management in Chittagong Bangladesh
and winners and losers

coastal climate resilient infrastructure project
-constructing, improving and extending 25 tropical cyclone shelters.
-training in climate resilience and adaptation.
-raised platforms above expected 2050 sea level

+generated income opportunities for people.
+reduced poverty by 10%
+road flooding only 5 days a year instead of 20

-disturbance of people and natural habitats
-relocation of 200 people by road realignment.


why is Bangladesh especially vulnerable to storm surges created by tropical cyclones?

-much of the country is a low-lying river delta, only 1-3m above sea level
-incoming storm surges meet out-flowing river discharge from the Gnages and Brahaputra rivers, meaning river flooding and coastal flooding combine
-intense rainfall from tropical cyclones contribute to flooding
-much of the coastline consists of unconsolidated delta sediment, which is very susceptible to erosion
-deforestation of coastal mangroves forests has removed vegetation that once stabilised coastal swaps and dissipated wave energy during tropical cyclones.
-the triangular shape of the Bay of Bengal concentrates a cyclone storm surge as it moves north, increasing its height when it makes landfall.


why do rates of erosion vary on the Holderness coast?

-coastal defences at Hornsea, Mappleton and Withernsea have stopped erosion.
-these defences have starved places further south (Easington) of sediment as groins have interrupted LSD
-erosion rate therefor generally decreases from north to south
-some boulder clay are more vulnerable to erosion than others
-some cliffs are more susceptible to mass movement.


isle of Purbeck

-made of clay and limestone so easily eroded
erosional landforms:
-Old harry (cave arch stack stump)
-Lulworth cove


environmental refugees

-low lying land means sea level rise is a risk to many of the islands only a few metres above sealant
-the highest point in the country is 2.3m above sea level.
-if sea level rises by the expected 50cm by 2100, we would see 77% of the Maldives disappear into the sea.