Flashcards in Case study: conservation of Pan troglodytes vellerosus/elliotti in Cameroon and Nigeria Deck (45):
List the 4 major threats to great ape populations in the wild.
1. Habitat loss
3. Human population expansions
What is thought to be the biggest threat to the survival of gorilla, chimpanzees and bonobos?
The bush-meat trade
Why are most assessments of the damage of hunting conducted? Are these methods effective?
Brief surveys of markets and interviews with hunters, no they are not
Who measured the annual loss from the wild using sanctuary intakes of orphans?
Hughes et al. (2011)
Loss from the wild was estimated by relating sanctuary intake to which 3 parameters?
1. proportions of infants in wild groups
2. hunting strategies
3. the likelihood that captured babies made it to a sanctuary
Which subspecies was the focus of the study?
Pan troglodytes vellerosus, or the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee
What is the other latin name P. t. vellerosus is sometimes called by?
P. t. elliotti
Based on intake rate from 1986 in four sanctuaries across Cameroon and Nigeria, what was inferred about the current hunting rates?
They are 2-13 times higher than sustainable
What is VORTEX?
A population viability analysis tool
What did VORTEX predict about the fate of P. t. vellerosus?
It is likely the may go extinct in the next 20 years
Why are ape sanctuaries becoming increasingly important?
Many ape populations are extinct in the wild, and in the coming years sanctuaries may contain more apes than survive in the wild.
How were the impacts of disease measured?
By nest counts
How was habitat loss measured?
By nest counts
How was hunting measured?
By nest counts, market surveys and sanctuary populations
Sanctuaries are experiencing a steady increase in arrivals. True or false?
Most new sanctuary arrivals are over 4 years old. True or false?
False, they are less than 4 years old.
The sex ratio of sanctuary arrivals is balanced. True or false?
P. t. vellerosus is the least endangered subspecies of chimpanzee. True or false?
False, it is the most endangered
P. t. vellerosus is widely distributed across Africa. True or false?
False, it is restricted to forests along the border of Nigeria and Cameroon
Which national park is P. t. vellerosus found in?
Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria
P. t. vellerosus is not genetically distinct from other species of chimpanzee. True or false?
False, P. t. vellerosus is the most genetically distinct subspecies
P. t. vellerosus orphans generally end up in 6 sanctuaries. Where are they located?
4 in Cameroon and 2 in Nigeria
Before they arrive at sanctuaries, what are the 3 most common existences for chimps?
1. Pets in homes
2. Held in villages
3. Attractions in restaurants, bars and hotels
What percentage of orphaned chimpanzees were previously owned by Cameroonians/Nigerians?
What percentage of orphaned chimpanzees were previously owned by ex-pats?
How do chimps arrive at sanctuaries? Give 3 methods.
Through hunting, what is the minimum number of apes lost to the wild?
2, a murdered mother and her stolen baby
If more than two apes are lost to the wild, how does this occur?
The mother, her baby, and additional group mates trying to protect them
How are chimpanzees hunted?
Chimps vocalise while constructing night nests
Hunters find them and wait below the nests until morning
At dawn, if any chimp moves it is shot at
Hunters systematically kill a particular age/sex class. True or false?
False, random firing of shots = random killing of age/sex classes
On average, how many apes (adult and infant) are killed for every one obtained alive?
4 dead for every 1 alive
Orphaned infants in sanctuaries can be described as what?
By-products of meat-hunting
Are any infants ever killed?
Yes, by accident
Do all infants captured survive?
No, capture and transport is too much for them
Are babies eaten?
No, they are often left to die or killed
Which book detailed this treatment of orphaned baby apes in places like the Congo and Cameroon?
Eating Apes by Peterson, 2003
Eating Apes by Peterson, 2003 focuses on what?
The explosion of the bush-meat trade in Central Africa into a commercial enterprise in recent years
What is the estimated 'optimistic rate' of orphans that make it to a sanctuary?
1 in 5 taken from the wild
Why don't orphans make it to a sanctuary?
They are killed or kept as tourist attractions
Losses to the wild were estimated by Hughes et al. (2011). Numerous studies from the 1950s onwards have predicted that population growth rate is decreasing in the wild. Did Hughes et al. (2011) find hunting to be sustainable?
No; as population growth has reduced over the last 50+ years, and removal has increased due to the explosion in bush-meat trade, current rates of hunting are unsustainable
The predictions of Hughes et al. (2011)'s study was only based on hunting. What did it predict?
That P. t. vellerosus is predicted to go extinct from hunting alone in our lifetime
In Hughes et al. (2011)'s study, what was the longest timescale predicted for extinction of P. t. vellerosus? What was this based on?
~40 years, based on the lowest estimate of individuals taken from the wild
In Hughes et al. (2011)'s study, what was the shortest timescale predicted for extinction of P. t. vellerosus? What was this based on?
~20 years, based on the highest estimate of individuals taken from the wild
What two things can the human-induced loss of P. t. vellerosus be described as?