Primate taxonomy Flashcards Preview

Year 3: Primate Ecology and Behaviour > Primate taxonomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Primate taxonomy Deck (64):
1

In the old classification system, what 2 suborders come under the order Primate?

1. Prosimii
2. Anthropoidea

2

What 3 infraorders come under prosimii?

1. Lemuriformes
2. Lorisiformes
3. Tarsiiformes

3

What 2 infraorders come under anthropoidea?

1. Platyrrhini
2. Catarrhini

4

In the new classification system, what 2 suborders come under Primate?

1. Strepsirhini
2. Haplorhini

5

What infraorders come under strepsirhini?

Lemuriformes and lorisiformes.

6

What infraorders come under haplorhini?

Tarsiiformes and simiformes (containing platyrrhini and catarrhini)

7

What 2 features group the tarsier, of the genus tarsus, the only member of the tarsiiformes, with the strepsirrhines?

1. Leave their infants in trees instead of constant carrying
2. Nocturnal

8

What 5 features group the tarsier with the haplorhines?

1. Dry nose
2. Complex brain
3. Lacks the tapetum
4. Faunivorous
5. Cannot synthesise own vitamin C

9

Which superfamily comes under the platyrhines? What does it contain?

Ceboidea: the New World monkeys

10

Within the superfamiy ceboidea, what are the 3 families?

1. Callitrichidae
2. Atelidae
3. Cebidae

11

What groups does callitrichidae contain?

Marmosets and tamarins.

12

What groups does atelidae contain?

Howlers, spider monkeys and muriquis.

13

Which 2 superfamilies come under the catarrhines?

1. Cercopithecoidea
2. Hominoidea

14

Within the superfamily cercopithecoidea, what is the family?

Cercopithecidae.

15

Within the family cercopithecidae, what are the 2 subfamilies?

1. Cercopithecinae
2. Colobinae

16

What are the cercopithecines?

Baboons, macaques, vervets and guenons.

17

What are the colobines?

Langurs, colobus and proboscis monkeys.

18

Under the new classification system, what are the 2 families within the superfamily hominoidea?

1. Hylobatidae
2. Hominidae

19

What are the hylobatids?

Gibbons and siamangs

20

Within the family hominidae, what are the 2 subfamilies? (according to the new classification system)

1. Ponginae
2. Homininae

21

What comes under ponginae?

The orangutan

22

What comes under homininae?

Gorilla, pan and homo

23

Homininae can be split into 2 distinct tribes. What are they?

Gorillini and hominini

24

What groups does hominini contain?

Pan (chimps and bonobos) and humans

25

What is characteristic of platyrhine nostrils?

Round, side-wards facing, 'flat and simple'

26

What is characteristic of catarrhine nostrils?

Narrow, down-ward facing, 'comma shaped'

27

Which is the most diverse infraorder within strepsirhini? What percentage of primate diversity do they account for?

Lemuriformes, 13%

28

What are 3 characteristics of strepsirhines?

1. Nocturnal
2. Possess a tapetum: light reflecting membrane in the eye
3. Wet noses to enhance sense of smell

29

Strepsirhines rely heavily on olfactory cues. How can we tell this? Give 2 reasons.

1. They have large nasal cavities
2. They have scent glands that release chemicals when rubbed on subtrate

30

Within the haplorhines only 1 monkey is nocturnal. What is it?

The night monkey (within the platyrrhines)

31

How can we infer from their morphology that haplorhines are diurnal?

There is a shift from olfactory to visual dependence; larger, forward-facing eyes and more complex brains

32

With platyrrhini, callitrichids commonly produce twins. True or false?

True.

33

All platyrrhines are arboreal, true or false?

True

34

Some species of platyrrhines are exudate feeders. Which group?

Some callitrichids e.g. marmosets have specialised incisors and guts to eat tree gum

35

Which family of platyrrhines possess prehensile tails?

Atelids.

36

Which subfamily employs suspensory locomotion?

Atelinae, containing muriquis and spiders: they hang/swing by the limbs and tails

37

BMRs and brain size vary within the platyrrhines. Compare howlers to capuchins.

Howlers are folivorous and have low BMRs and smaller brains due to their energy-poor diet. Capuchins are frugivorous and have higher BMRs and larger brains to match their high-energy diet.

38

Capuchins and squirrel monkeys both have high BMRs and large brains. Compare their development.

Capuchins rely on postnatal development and a large investment of parental care.
Squirrel monkeys rely on prenatal development and thus have relatively high birth weights.

39

Within the catarrhines, which group have unique stomachs?

The colobines possess sacculated stomachs: the stomach is divided into pouch-like sections and use bacteria to digest plant matter/toxins.

40

Within the catarrhines, which group have cheek pouches and why?

The cercopithecines - these are useful in food processing for 2 reasons:
1. Monkey can shove as much food in as possible before it is displaced, compete for high energy resources
2. Can store unripe fruit/toxic matter and salivary enzymes can break them down over time

41

Unripe fruits are high energy foods. Why?

They contain lots of starch. In the cheek pouches of cercopithecines amylase breaks down starch into glucose, thus there is a rapid mobilisation of energy.

42

All groups under the superfamily hominoidea lack tails. True or false?

True.

43

How do gibbons and siamangs move?

They are considered the only true brachiators due to their lack of tails.

44

How do orangutans move?

Quadramanual locomotion: they use their hands to hoist themselves up into the canopy.

45

Which genera are knuckle-walkers?

Gorilla and pan

46

Which bone bares all the weight in knuckle-walking?

The outside of the metacarpal bone.

47

All other quadrapedal primates walk on their knuckles. True or false?

False: all other quadrapedal primates walk on their palms.

48

Longer arms than legs indicate what?

An upright posture.

49

how long ago did pan and homo split?

Approx 5.4mya, there was interbreeding up until this point.

50

CMAH promotes the production of a particular sugar but disrupts brain function. Chimps have CMAH, do we?

No, we lost it 2mya, and thus have bigger, more complex brains.

51

FOXP2 promotes motor function of the mouth region. Do chimps have this?

No, we developed it 200,000 years ago. It is thought it facilitates our language capabilities.

52

What taxonomic rank does the suffix '-dea' indicate?

Superfamily

e.g. cercopithecoidea

53

What taxonomic rank does the suffix '-dae' indicate?

Family

e.g. cercopithecidae

54

What taxonomic rank does the suffix '-nae' indicate?

Subfamily

e.g. cercopithecinae

55

How many families are there within the lemuriformes? What are they?

5

Lemuridae
Lepilemuridae
Cheirogaleidae
Indriidae
Daubentoniidae

56

What does lemuridae contain?

Ring-tailed and ruffed lemurs

57

What does lepilemuridae contain?

Sportive lemurs

58

What does cheirogaleidae contain?

Dwarf and mouse lemurs

59

What does indriidae contain?

Indris, avahis and sifakas

60

What does daubentoniidae contain?

Aye-ayes

61

Under the infraorder lorisiformes, what does the family lorisidae contain?

Lorises, pottos and angwantbos

62

How many family are there in the infraorder lorisiformes? What are they?

2

Lorisidae
Galagidae

63

What does galagidae contain?

Galagos (bush babies)

64

What 3 subfamilies does the family cebidae contain?

Cebinae: squirrels and capuchins
Aotinae: night monkeys
Pithecinae: Uakaris and saki monkeys