Flashcards in Primate taxonomy Deck (64):
In the old classification system, what 2 suborders come under the order Primate?
What 3 infraorders come under prosimii?
What 2 infraorders come under anthropoidea?
In the new classification system, what 2 suborders come under Primate?
What infraorders come under strepsirhini?
Lemuriformes and lorisiformes.
What infraorders come under haplorhini?
Tarsiiformes and simiformes (containing platyrrhini and catarrhini)
What 2 features group the tarsier, of the genus tarsus, the only member of the tarsiiformes, with the strepsirrhines?
1. Leave their infants in trees instead of constant carrying
What 5 features group the tarsier with the haplorhines?
1. Dry nose
2. Complex brain
3. Lacks the tapetum
5. Cannot synthesise own vitamin C
Which superfamily comes under the platyrhines? What does it contain?
Ceboidea: the New World monkeys
Within the superfamiy ceboidea, what are the 3 families?
What groups does callitrichidae contain?
Marmosets and tamarins.
What groups does atelidae contain?
Howlers, spider monkeys and muriquis.
Which 2 superfamilies come under the catarrhines?
Within the superfamily cercopithecoidea, what is the family?
Within the family cercopithecidae, what are the 2 subfamilies?
What are the cercopithecines?
Baboons, macaques, vervets and guenons.
What are the colobines?
Langurs, colobus and proboscis monkeys.
Under the new classification system, what are the 2 families within the superfamily hominoidea?
What are the hylobatids?
Gibbons and siamangs
Within the family hominidae, what are the 2 subfamilies? (according to the new classification system)
What comes under ponginae?
What comes under homininae?
Gorilla, pan and homo
Homininae can be split into 2 distinct tribes. What are they?
Gorillini and hominini
What groups does hominini contain?
Pan (chimps and bonobos) and humans
What is characteristic of platyrhine nostrils?
Round, side-wards facing, 'flat and simple'
What is characteristic of catarrhine nostrils?
Narrow, down-ward facing, 'comma shaped'
Which is the most diverse infraorder within strepsirhini? What percentage of primate diversity do they account for?
What are 3 characteristics of strepsirhines?
2. Possess a tapetum: light reflecting membrane in the eye
3. Wet noses to enhance sense of smell
Strepsirhines rely heavily on olfactory cues. How can we tell this? Give 2 reasons.
1. They have large nasal cavities
2. They have scent glands that release chemicals when rubbed on subtrate
Within the haplorhines only 1 monkey is nocturnal. What is it?
The night monkey (within the platyrrhines)
How can we infer from their morphology that haplorhines are diurnal?
There is a shift from olfactory to visual dependence; larger, forward-facing eyes and more complex brains
With platyrrhini, callitrichids commonly produce twins. True or false?
All platyrrhines are arboreal, true or false?
Some species of platyrrhines are exudate feeders. Which group?
Some callitrichids e.g. marmosets have specialised incisors and guts to eat tree gum
Which family of platyrrhines possess prehensile tails?
Which subfamily employs suspensory locomotion?
Atelinae, containing muriquis and spiders: they hang/swing by the limbs and tails
BMRs and brain size vary within the platyrrhines. Compare howlers to capuchins.
Howlers are folivorous and have low BMRs and smaller brains due to their energy-poor diet. Capuchins are frugivorous and have higher BMRs and larger brains to match their high-energy diet.
Capuchins and squirrel monkeys both have high BMRs and large brains. Compare their development.
Capuchins rely on postnatal development and a large investment of parental care.
Squirrel monkeys rely on prenatal development and thus have relatively high birth weights.
Within the catarrhines, which group have unique stomachs?
The colobines possess sacculated stomachs: the stomach is divided into pouch-like sections and use bacteria to digest plant matter/toxins.
Within the catarrhines, which group have cheek pouches and why?
The cercopithecines - these are useful in food processing for 2 reasons:
1. Monkey can shove as much food in as possible before it is displaced, compete for high energy resources
2. Can store unripe fruit/toxic matter and salivary enzymes can break them down over time
Unripe fruits are high energy foods. Why?
They contain lots of starch. In the cheek pouches of cercopithecines amylase breaks down starch into glucose, thus there is a rapid mobilisation of energy.
All groups under the superfamily hominoidea lack tails. True or false?
How do gibbons and siamangs move?
They are considered the only true brachiators due to their lack of tails.
How do orangutans move?
Quadramanual locomotion: they use their hands to hoist themselves up into the canopy.
Which genera are knuckle-walkers?
Gorilla and pan
Which bone bares all the weight in knuckle-walking?
The outside of the metacarpal bone.
All other quadrapedal primates walk on their knuckles. True or false?
False: all other quadrapedal primates walk on their palms.
Longer arms than legs indicate what?
An upright posture.
how long ago did pan and homo split?
Approx 5.4mya, there was interbreeding up until this point.
CMAH promotes the production of a particular sugar but disrupts brain function. Chimps have CMAH, do we?
No, we lost it 2mya, and thus have bigger, more complex brains.
FOXP2 promotes motor function of the mouth region. Do chimps have this?
No, we developed it 200,000 years ago. It is thought it facilitates our language capabilities.
What taxonomic rank does the suffix '-dea' indicate?
What taxonomic rank does the suffix '-dae' indicate?
What taxonomic rank does the suffix '-nae' indicate?
How many families are there within the lemuriformes? What are they?
What does lemuridae contain?
Ring-tailed and ruffed lemurs
What does lepilemuridae contain?
What does cheirogaleidae contain?
Dwarf and mouse lemurs
What does indriidae contain?
Indris, avahis and sifakas
What does daubentoniidae contain?
Under the infraorder lorisiformes, what does the family lorisidae contain?
Lorises, pottos and angwantbos
How many family are there in the infraorder lorisiformes? What are they?
What does galagidae contain?
Galagos (bush babies)