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Flashcards in Facts and references Deck (278):
1

What is the Latin name for the common chimpanzee?

Pan troglodytes

2

In what region are chimpanzees found?

Outline their range.

West, Central and East Africa

From Gambia in the west to Uganda in the east, EXCLUDING central Congo where bonobos are found instead

3

The chimpanzee is highly adaptable. What habitats does it occupy? List 5

Savannah, rainforest, montane forest, swamp forest, dry woodland

4

What is the chimpanzees diet?

It is an omnivorous frugivore (they will basically eat anything)

5

Chimpanzees will eat meat. What is its preferred mammal prey?

Western red colobus monkeys

(Procolobus badius)

6

What kind of mating system do chimpanzees have?

Polygynandrous

7

Which is the philopatric sex in chimpanzees?

Males

8

How do chimpanzees move?

By knuckle-walking

9

What is the dental formula for platyrrhines? They have 3 premolars, but can have different numbers of premolars.

2.1.3.2
2.1.3.3

10

For each quadrant what is the order of teeth in the mouth?

Incisors, canines, premolars, molars

11

What is the dental formula for catarrhines? We have 2 premolars and 3 molars.

2.1.2.3

12

What is the genus name for spider monkeys?

Ateles

13

In what region are spider monkeys found?

Central and South America

14

What habitat do spider monkeys live in?

Rainforest

15

What is the diet of spider monkeys?

Frugivorous

16

What mating system do spider monkeys have?

Polygynandrous

17

Which sex is philopatric in spider monkeys?

Males

18

Which three groups of primates are the only species to adopt fission-fusion communities?

Spider monkeys, chimpanzees/bonobos and humans

19

How do spider monkeys move?

By suspensory locomotion with their prehensile tail

20

What is the genus name for capuchins?

Cebus

21

In what region are capuchins found?

Central and South America

22

What habitat do capuchins occupy?

A range of forest types although they prefer rainforests

23

What mating system do capuchins have?

Polygynandrous as females often have multiple mates, although polygynous systems have been observed

24

How do capuchins move?

By quadrapedal locomotion

25

How many species of macaque are there?

22

26

What is the Latin name of the Barbary macaque?

Macaca sylvanus

27

In what region does the Barbary macaque live?

In the Atlas Mountains of Algeria and Morocco and a small population in Gibraltar

28

What habitat does the Barbary macaque live in? Give 4 examples.

Primarily forests (like cedar), but also grasslands, scrub, rocky ridges

29

What is the Barbary macaque's diet?

Omnivorous folivore

Their diet varies with season

30

What is the mating system of Barbary macaques?

Polygynandrous

31

What is the locomotory style of Barbary macaques?

Quadrapedalism

32

How many species of baboon are there? What are they?

5

Olive/Anubis
Yellow/Savannah
Chacma/Cape
Hamadryas
Guinea

33

What is the Latin name for the hamadryas baboon?

Papio hamadryas

34

Where are hamadryas baboons found?

List the African countries.
List the Middle Eastern countries.

The Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia

Yemen and Saudi Arabia

35

What kind of habitats do hamadryas baboons live in? Give 3 examples

Semi-desert, savannah/plains/meadows and rocky cliffs

36

What is the diet of hamadryas baboons?

Omnivorous

37

What is the mating system of hamadryas baboons?

Polygynous

38

Which sex is philopatric in hamadryas baboons?

Males, unlike in other baboons where it is the females

39

Which sex is philopatric in Barbary macaques?

Females

40

What is the Latin name for the gelada?

Theropithecus gelada

41

There are only two countries in the world where you will find geladas. What are they?

Ethiopia and Eritrea

42

Which national park are geladas found in in Ethiopia?

The Semien Mountains National Park

43

What habitat do geladas occupy?

The sleep on rocky cliffs and descend into grasslands to feed during the day

44

What is the mating system of geladas?

Polygynous

45

As well as anogenital swellings, what other sign is there that a female has come into estrus?

All geladas have a hairless patch on their chests; a ring of red beading develops here (it goes red basically)

46

In geladas, a male and his harem is called an OMU or one-male-unit. When many OMUs come together what does this form?

A band

47

As well as OMUs, what other kind of group exists in gelada society?

AMUs or all-male-bands (bachelor bands)

48

What diet do geladas have?

They are exclusively folivorous, mostly feed on grass

49

Does the gelada's diet change based on seasonal availability?

Yes

50

Geladas are highly specialised feeders. How? Why?

The opposability of their first two digits is the highest of all catarrhines. They also have short/robust phalanges.

Allows them to pick grass blades individually to sort good blades from bad in the dry season. Allows them to dig for tubers.

51

There are two species of mandrill, genus Mandrillus. What are they?

Mandrills and drills

52

What is the latin name for the mandrill?

Mandrillus sphinx

53

In what region of Africa are mandrills found?
Which countries? There are 4.

Central Africa

Parts of (not throughout) Cameroon, Gabon, Guinea, Congo

54

What habitats are mandrills found in?

Tropical rainforests

55

Why is it strange that mandrills are found in tropical rainforests?

They are adapted to live on the ground but shelter in the trees at night.

56

How do mandrills move? Can they climb trees?

Quadrupedal locomotion

Yes

57

How are mandrills and drills distinguishable?

Mandrills have brightly coloured faces whilst drills' faces are all black.

58

What is the mating system of mandrills?

Polygynous

59

Which sex is philopatric in mandrills?

Females

60

Is allomothering observed in mandrills?

Yes

61

Which sex is philopatric in geladas?

Females

62

What beneficial traits are close social bonds associated with? Give 3.

Lower stress, better health, increased lifespan

63

Do geladas allomother?

Yes

64

Who studied geladas?

Dunbar from the 1970s onwards

65

What kind of diet do mandrills have?

Omnivorous
(will eat leaves/fruit/flowers/small vertebrates)

66

What are the two major threats to mandrills?

1. Habitat destruction
2. Hunting for bushmeat

67

Why are mandrills easily located by hunters?

Due to their loud calls

68

What is the Latin name for the Hanuman langur monkey?

Semnopithecus entellus

69

What other common name is there for the Hanuman langur?

Gray langur

70

In what region is the Hanuman langur found in?
Which countries is it found in? There are 7.

Southern Asia

Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka

71

What kind of habitats are langurs found in?

A wide range;

Arid scrubland to tropical rainforest to urban areas

72

Name a city in India where langurs live in close proximity with humans?

Jodhpur, India

73

What is the mating system of langurs?

Polgynous or polygynandrous

74

In which part of India are langurs a) polygynous and b) polgynandrous? Why?

a) Southern India; lack of seasonality + provisioning from locals means females are desynchronised from the environment, males can monopolise

b) Northern India; seasonality means females are synchronised to the environment, males cannot monopolise

75

Which sex is philopatric in langurs?

Females

76

Do langurs display allomothering?

Yes

77

How do langurs move?

Quadrupedal locomotion

78

Do langurs spend more time on the ground or in the trees?

On the ground, 80% of their time. They use trees for sleeping.

79

What is the diet of hanuman langurs?

They are folivorous

(although they have been found to eat fruits/flowers/gum/bark etc.)

80

How many a) genera and b) species are there in the subfamily Callitrichinae?

a) 4
b) 32

81

Where are the Callitrichinae found?

In Central and South America

82

What habitat do the Callitrichinae occupy?

Tropical rainforests

83

Do the Callitrichinae have prehensile tails?

No

84

Callitrichids are quadrupedal. Why does their morphology suggest otherwise?

Their forelimbs are shorter than their hindlimbs.
This is characteristic of primates that locomote using vertical clinging and leaping.

85

Do callitrichids have opposable thumbs and big toes?

No

86

Do callitichids have nails like other primates?

No, they have claws

87

What di callitrichids use their claws for?

Grip and to dig into tree bark

88

What are the mating systems observed in callitrichids?

Mostly polyandry (they are a model for polyandry), but depending on species can be monogamous

89

Do males care for the young in callitrichids?

Yes; he carries the infants and only transfers them back to their mother long enough for them to nurse.

Basically everyone looks after the babies except the mother.

90

What is the diet of callitrichids?

Primarily insectivorous, although fruits/seeds/gum are frequently eaten

91

What is the Latin name for Geoffroy's tamarin?

Saguinus geoffroyi

92

What is the geographic range of Geoffroy's tamarin? What is unique about this?

South-western Costa Rica to North-western Colombia

It is the only callitrichid to extend as far north as Costa Rica from South America

93

In what habitat does Geoffroy's tamarin live?

Densely-forested areas, it avoids open forest areas

94

What is the mating system of Geoffroy's tamarin?

Polyandry

95

Geoffroy's tamarin is territorial. How do we know this?

They visit the borders of their range and scent mark each day

96

Geoffroy's tamarin is largely insectivorous. What are their favourite insects?

Grasshoppers and cicadas

97

Although Geoffroy's tamarin is insectivorous, what does the large proportion of their does consist of?

Fruit

98

What does Geoffroy's tamarin when fruits become seasonally scarce?

Nectar

99

There are two species of gorilla. What are they?

The Western and Eastern gorillas

100

What is another common name for the Western gorilla?

The lowland gorilla

101

In what region is the western gorilla found?
In which countries? There are 8.

West and Central Africa

Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Angola, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo and possibly Democratic Republic of Congo

102

What is the Latin name of the western gorilla?

Gorilla gorilla

103

How many subspecies of the western gorilla are there?

What are they and where are they found?

2

Gorilla gorilla, Cameroon southwards
Gorilla gorilla diehli, found in a small part of the Nigerian/Cameroonian border

104

What habitat does the western gorilla occupy?

Tropical secondary forest where the open canopy provides lots of light

105

What visual differences are there between western and eastern gorillas? List 2.

Western gorillas are slightly more brown/grey in colour

Western gorillas are slightly smaller than eastern in body size, as well as having smaller teeth and jaws

106

The arm span of gorillas is longer than their standing height. True or false?

True.

107

Gorillas are aggressive. True or false?

False, they are generally peaceful and shy unless disturbed

108

What is the aggressive behaviour of male gorillas?

Charging; often the male will charge an intruder but rush past instead of colliding, and then will charge again

109

What is the mating system of gorillas?

Generally polygynous, although polgynandrous and AMUs are observed.

110

Are gorillas territorial?

Not really, ranges of neighbouring groups often overlap.

111

Do gorillas build nests?

Yes

112

What is the diet of gorillas? What is their preferred food?

Folivorous

Juicy-stemmed plants (but will also consume leaves, berries, flowers, roots, bark and sometimes small invertebrates)

113

What are the main threats to gorillas? List 2.

1. Hunting for skins and meat
2. Capture for zoos
3. Habitat destruction, particularly for eastern gorillas

114

How do gorillas move?

Knuckle-walking, although tree climbing is observed

115

What is the Latin name for the Eastern Gorilla?

Gorilla beringei

116

What is another common name for the eastern gorilla?

Mountain gorilla

117

Where are eastern gorillas found? Be specific.

In the Virunga volcanoes that separate Democratic Republic of Congo from Rwanda.

118

In what habitat are eastern gorillas found?

Montane cloud forest

119

Which species of gibbon are found in Khao Yai, Thailand (the ones Volker studied)?

Lar gibbons

120

What is the Latin name for the lar gibbon?

Hylobates lar

121

What is another common name for the lar gibbon?

White-handed gibbon

122

In what region are lar gibbons found?
Which countries are they found in? There are 5.

Southeast Asia

Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand

123

Which habitat are lar gibbons found in?

Forests, various types e.g. bamboo, evergreen, swamp etc.

124

Lar gibbons are dichromatic according to sex. True or false?

False; dichromatism is independent of sex

125

What colours are lar gibbons?

Either black/brown or white/cream

126

How do lar gibbons move?

By brachiation, hand-over-hand swinging.

127

Gibbons have tails. True or false?

False

128

Gibbons have very long forelimbs. True or false?

True

129

What diet do gibbons have?

They are frugivorous (although they will also eat flowers and insects)

They are very picky when eating fruits; fruits are tested and either accepted or rejected based on ripeness

130

What are the 2 major threats to gibbons?

1. The illegal pet trade (particularly in Thailand)
2. Habitat loss

131

How many subspecies of chimpanzee are there? What are they?

4

P. t. troglodytes, the Central chimpanzee

P. t. verus, the Western chimpanzee

P. t. ellioti/vellerosus, the Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee

P.t. schweinfurthii, the Eastern chimpanzee

132

Which countries is the Central chimpanzee found in? There are 6.

Cameroon, Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo,

133

Which countries is the Western chimpanzee found in? There are 8.

Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast and Ghana

134

Which countries is the Eastern chimpanzee found in? There are 8

Central African Republic, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia

135

Where is Gombe Stream National Park where Goodall studied chimpanzees?

Tanzania

136

What is the Latin name for the bonobo?

Pan paniscus

137

What is another common name for the bonobo?

The pygmy chimpanzee

138

Where is the bonobo found?

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, specifically in the Congo basin

139

Which habitat do bonobos occupy?

Rainforest

140

What physical differences are there between chimpanzees and bonobos? List 2 things.

Bonobos have longer hair, hairy cheeks and foreheads (whereas chimp faces are hairless so their faces look bigger)

Exposed bonobo skin is always darkly coloured whereas chimps have lighter skin, esp. in younger years

141

Which is the philopatric sex in the bonobo? Why is this odd?

Males, yet it is the females that show social bonding

142

What is the diet of the bonobo?

Omnivorous frugivore

143

Is allomothering common in Barbary macaques?

Yes

144

What is the social structure of hamadyras baboons?

What are clans?
What are bands?
What are troops?

Two or three OMUs (harems) come together to form clans. Clans leaders are related.

Clans come together to form bands. Band leaders are generally not related.

Troops contain several bands that share the same feeding/water/sleeping sites.

145

Are male hamadryas baboons aggressive?

Extremely; they aggressively herd females and juveniles within their OMU and enforce strict discipline. Females are often forcefully transferred between clans. Juveniles are prevented from playing with like-age individuals in other bands.

146

How many members are there in the genus Theropithecus?

1, only the gelada

147

What is the Latin name for the Japanese macaque?

Macaca fuscata

148

There are two species of orang-utan. What are they?

The Bornean and Sumatran orangutans

149

What is the Latin name for the Bornean orangutan?

Pongo pygmaeus

150

What is the Latin name for the Sumatran orangutan?

Pongo abelii

151

Who described the LRC hypothesis as a way of altering offspring sex ratio?

Van Schaik and Hrdy, 1991

152

Who proposed the Trivers-Willard hypothesis as a way of altering offspring sex ratio?

Trivers and Willard, 1973

153

Who proposed that females should attempt to limit the production of daughters by other females when females are the philopatric sex?

Silk et al., 1981

154

Silk et al., 1981:

Which primates did the authors study?

Bonnet macaques

155

What is the Latin name for bonnet macaques?

Macaca radiata

156

Where are bonnet macaques found?

The Western Ghat mountains in India

157

Which habitats do bonnet macaques occupy?

Forest, can be either evergreen high forest or deciduous forest

158

Which sex is philopatric in bonnet macaques? Why is this strange?

Females, yet males also form unique social bonds

159

What is the mating system of bonnet macaques?

Polygynandrous

160

How do bonnet macaques move?

Quadrupedal locomotion

161

What kind of diet do bonnet macaques eat?

They are omnivores, but often they depend on food left by humans e.g. near urban settlement, from temples

162

Silk et al., 1981;

What did the authors find about the survival of infants produced by low ranking females?

These infants had a smaller probability of survival due to aggression from higher ranking females

163

Silk et al., 1981;

Females appear to respond selectively towards the offspring of other females and their rank. Why?

Because it may affect the survival of their own infants

164

Silk et al., 1981;

Why would high ranking females reduce the production of daughters by subordinates?

Because daughters are philopatric and will compete for resources with their own offspring

165

Silk et al., 1981;

What would you expect in the offspring sex ratio among lower ranking females if this hypothesis was correct?

A male-biased sex ratio in low ranking females offspring, although there was no evidence of this

166

Who described the polygyny threshold model?

Orian, 1969

167

Orian, 1969;

What does the model depend on?

Female choice, as polygyny is always advantageous to males

168

Orian, 1969;

What does the model assume about the environment?

It is variable and reproductive success correlates to variability

Polygyny only expected to evolve under these conditions

169

What can you link the polygyny threshold model to?

The Good Parent Process (Hoelzer, 1989)

170

Who studied mating interference?

Sommer, 1989

171

Sommer, 1989;

What is mating interference?

When non-mating individuals harass the copulation of others.

172

Sommer, 1989;

Which primate did the author study interference in?

Hanuman langurs

173

Sommer, 1989;

What did the author observe?

Other females trying to pull the way off, biting the male and chasing the female away

174

Sommer, 1989;

What percentage of 346 interactions were harassed by members of all age classes except infants?

80.6%

175

Sommer, 1989;

Higher ranking females harassed other higher ranking females more. True or false?

False; they harassed lower ranking females more

176

Sommer, 1989;

Why do females interfere with the copulation of others?

To limit the number of births of others and reduce possible future resource competition.

To ensure the male is not depleted when they want to mate.

177

Sommer, 1989;

Why do immatures interfere with the copulation of their mothers?

To limit the births of rival siblings

178

Sommer, 1989;

Why do other females interfere with the copulation of already-pregnant females?

What percentage of copulation with an already-pregnant female was disturbed?

Because they are 'wasting sperm'

75%

179

Bonnet macaque males show unique social bonds. Why is it thought this is the case?

Females DO NOT exhibit sexual swellings, thus this may facilitate social cohesion.

180

Who studied sexual swellings?

Highman et al., 2008

181

Highman et al., 2008;

What did the authors find about the cause of sexual swellings?

They are hormone-dependent

182

Highman et al., 2008;

What does oestrogen do?

Stimulates swelling, corresponds to the follicular stage

183

What is the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle?

When the follicle is maturing, ends in ovulation

184

Highman et al., 2008;

What does progesterone do?

Inhibits swelling, corresponds to the luteal phase

185

What is the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle?

Basically the breakdown of the corpus luteum if an egg goes unfertilised

186

Highman et al., 2008;

Which group exhibits the largest sexual swellings? Why?

Nulliparous catarrhine females

Swelling size indicates cycle number, largest swellings arise from successive cycles undisturbed by conceiving

187

Highman et al., 2008;

Do females conceiving regularly exhibit sexual swellings?

Rarely

188

Who studied gibbons in Khao Yai, Thailand?

Sommer and Reichard, 2000

189

Sommer and Reichard, 2000;

What did they find about group ranges?

They overlap

190

Sommer and Reichard, 2000;

Individuals were monogamous with the same individual throughout life. True or false?

False; partner changes or 'serial monogamy' was observed

191

Sommer and Reichard, 2000;

What percentage of groups were polyandrous or polgynandrous?

25%

192

Sommer and Reichard, 2000;

Why do the authors think females performed EPCs?

To confuse paternity and prevent infanticide

193

Sommer and Reichard, 2000;

Why do the authors think the Female Great Call exists? What about the Male Coda?

To advertise her quality to other males

To warn other males she is already spoken for

194

Sommer and Reichard, 2000;

What two factors do the authors think the intensity of the Great Call is correlated to?

Female attractiveness (fitness-dependent trait?)

Male resource-holding capability

195

Sommer and Reichard, 2000;

What creates the high relatedness between groups?

Short dispersal distance and EPCs

196

Who looked at colouration in mandrills?

Setchell, 2005

197

Setchell, 2005:

What did the author find about colouration?

Brightly coloured males received more attention from females and higher mating success

198

Setchell, 2005:

What effect did colour have on female grooming?

Females groomed the brightest male only

199

Setchell, 2005:

Where did the study take place?

Gabon

200

Setchell, 2005:

What did the author find between colour and dominance rank?

Colour had more influence on female behaviour than dominance rank

201

Setchell, 2005:

An alpha male fell in rank without loss of colouration. Did the females still mate with him?

Yes

202

Who outlined criteria for the influence of mate choice on communication?

Snowdon, 2004

203

Snowdon, 2004;

What are the criteria for the influence of mate choice in communication? There are 5.

1. Signals are sexually dimorphic
2. Variation in signal occurs between same-sex social partners
3. Discrimination and preference occurs between opposite-sex social partners
4. Expression of preference occurs in the context of reproduction
5. Outcomes of preference based on signal must relate to reproductive success

204

Which species did Sarah (Blaffer) Hrdy begin her work in and where? What did she do?

Hanuman langurs at Mount Abu in Rajasthan, India

Infanticide was thought to be because of overcrowding, she realised it was to do with sexual selection

205

Which species did Jane Goodall study and where?

Common chimpanzees in Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania

206

Which species did Dian Fossey study and where?

Eastern (mountain) gorillas in Virunga National Park, Rwanda

207

Which species did Birutė Galdikas study and where?

Orangutans in Tanjung Puting Reserve, Borneo

208

What were the Trimates? Who did it consist of?

Three female primatologists handpicked by Louis Leakey to study the great apes

Jane Goodall
Dian Fossey
Birutė Galdikas

209

Who was Louis Leakey?

A Kenyan palaeoanthropologist famous for his work on human evolution in African

210

Why did Leakey establish the Trimates?

He believed studying the great apes in their natural habitats would provide clues about evolution

211

Who is Robin Dunbar?

An anthropologist specialising in primate behaviour and psychology

212

What year did Konrad Lorenz propose his theory on aggression?

1963 in his book 'On Aggression'

213

Which book detailed this treatment of orphaned baby apes in places like the Congo and Cameroon?

Eating Apes by Peterson, 2003

214

Who measured annual loss from the wild using sanctuary intake of P. t. vellerosus orphans in Cameroon and Nigeria?

Hughes et al., 2011

215

Who founded the Great Ape Project and when?

Peter Singer and Paola Cavalieri, 1993

216

What is the Amboseli Baboon Research Project (ABRP)?

One of the world's longest-running studies on wild primates, focusing on the savannah baboon

217

What is the wild name for the savannah baboon?

Papio cynocephalus

218

Where is the ABRP?

In Amboseli National Park in Kenya

219

Who founded the ABRP and when?

Jeanne and Stuart Altmann, 1971

220

Who introduced the thinking of Machiavelli into primatology and when? How?

Frans de Waal, 1975

A 6-year study on captive chimpanzees in Arnhem Zoo, the Netherlands

221

Frans de Waal was insistent that his primates displayed emotion and intention, inspiring the theme of primate cognition which now revolves around the themes of...

Cooperation, altruism and fairness

222

Who studied fertility suppression in common marmosets?

Abbott, 1984

223

What is the Latin name for the common marmoset?

Callitrichix jacchus jacchus

224

Abbott, 1984;

The study focused on lab families. What percentage of family groups prevented daughters from ovulating completely?

50%

225

Abbott, 1984;

How were daughters prevented from ovulating?

Hypothalamic inhibition of LHRH (luteinising hormone-releasing hormone), producing inadequate gonadotrophin secretion

226

Abbott, 1984;

In some families, one daughter was allowed to ovulate. Why?

She may have represented the next breeding female and no longer saw the mother as an inhibitory influence

227

Abbott, 1984;

Subordinate and juvenile males were also prevented from mating, often resulting in a monogamous breeding system. How?

They were physically restrained by other males

228

Who conducted recent research on Theory of Mind in chimpanzees?

Felix Warneken

229

What did Felix Warneken find? Give 2 things.

Chimpanzees can tell whether a researcher wishes to retrieve a dropped object and pick it up for them.

Chimpanzees will only pick up the object if it was dropped accidentally, not if it was dropped on purpose in which case they ignore it.

Shows theory of mind, they can understand the researcher's intentions

230

Who proposed the idea of kin selection in primatology?

William Donald Hamilton, 1964

231

Who proposed the idea of reciprocity in primatology?

Rpbert Trivers, 1971

232

Who proposed the Handicap Principle?

Amotz Zahavi, 1975

233

Cercopithecines have flat molars for grinding seeds. True or false?

True

COLOBINES DO NOT

234

Frugivorous primates have larger home ranges and longer day ranges than folivorous. Why?

Because they have more energy

235

Under the Local Resource Enhancement hypothesis, mothers bias the sex ratio of their offspring towards...

The philopatric sex

236

Reproductive seasonality only occurs in species with highly specialised diets. True or false?

False

237

What is the problem with using group selection to explain altruism?

Selfish primates (cheaters) would outcompete altruistic ones

238

In which species were 'proto-culture' and traditions first observed?

Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

239

Second-order mental representation can be described as...

Mind-reading

240

Give two advantages to using primates as models for behavioural ecology.

1. Can recognise individuals
2. Can easily categorise behaviours

241

Give two disadvantages to using primates as models for behavioural ecology.

1. Human presence alters their behaviour
2. Primates are long-lived so cannot measure their lifetime repro success in a single discrete field study

242

List 4 anatomical features that indicate primate ecology.

1. Limb/hand structure (presence/absence of thumb)
2. Tail morphology (prehensile or vestigial)
3. Digestive apparatus (cheek pouches, sacculated stomachs)
4. Eye morphology (size, tapetum)

243

Give an example of a primate with a vestigial tail.

Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

244

List 4 characteristics that make certain males more attractive to females.

1. Fitness-dependent traits
2. Physical size
3. Territory quality
4. Dominance rank

Basically traits that show heritable quality and competitive ability

245

When is dominance rank particularly influential in female choice? Give an example.

Is dispersing species, as males have to move their way up the hierarchy.

Most baboon species where females are philopatric

246

What are the costs of group living? Give 4 examples.

1. More members = more resource competition
2. In one-male multi female groups, sperm becomes depleted
3. Polygynandrous groups = higher chance of infanticide
4. Larger groups are easier for predators to detect

247

What are the benefits of group living?

1. Predator defence
2. Allies in resource acquisition in the philopatric sex
3. Allomothering
4. More potential mates in polygynandrous societies (less individuals excluded from mating)

248

How can being a dominant female result in higher reproductive success? List 3 reasons.

1. More resources to sustain gestation/lactation
2. More resources causes younger age of menarchy
3. Control resources so can channel them into offspring (Trivers-Willard hyp, 1973)

249

What are the 3 hypotheses for concealed ovulation?

1. Reduced infanticide
2. Increased paternal investment
3. Social-bonding hypothesis

250

Explain the increased paternal investment hypothesis for concealed ovulation

If male cannot tell when a female is ovulating he will stay with her to mate throughout hr cycle

251

Explain the social bonding hypothesis for concealed ovulation

If females are receptive throughout their cycle then it reduces male-male aggression common in species with defined breeding seasons

252

What are the two hypotheses for why male primates will be friendly towards infants?

1. Paternal care
2. Agonistic buffering

253

Explain the paternal care hypothesis for male behaviour towards infants

Paternity uncertainty means the infant might be theirs, will benefit from their care

254

Explain the agonistic buffering hypothesis for male behaviour towards infants. Give two species in which this has been observed (there are loads).

Males will pick up a baby to prevent another male attacking them, males will not risk hurting babies due to paternity uncertainty.

Geladas (Theropithecus gelada)
Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus)

255

Name 4 factors that influence coalition formation

1. Relatedness, e.g. Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) against infanticide
2. Social bonding, e.g. grooming in capuchins (genus Cebus)
3. Sexual bonding, e.g. female bonobos (Pan paniscus)
4. Resource acquisition, e.g. non-related male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

256

In which taxa is infanticide committed by females?

Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Callitrichids (family Callitrichinae)

257

What are the 4 methods of communication in primates?

1. Olfactory
2. Visual
3. Vocal
4. Behavioural

258

List 4 observations of tool use in chimpanzees, with the location and tool used.

1. Fishing stick in Gombe, Tanzania
2. Hammer and anvil, Nimba Mountains, Guinea
3. Spears, Senegal
4. Puncturing stick, Democratic Republic of Congo

259

Why are females integral to evolution of tool usage?

Younger animals pick up techniques more quickly and they spend the most time with their mothers

260

What kinds of tools have capuchins been seen using?

Hammer and anvil to crush seeds/nuts
Digging stones

261

What kind of tools have orang-utans been seen using?

Sticks to measure water depth
Leaf umbrellas
Spears for fishing
Stones to open fruits

262

Give 4 abilities of primates that show they have theory of mind.

1. Imitation
2. Deception
3. Manipulation
4. Teaching

263

List things you are going to remember in the exam.

1. To UNDERLINE LATIN NAMES
2. That some MQCs have NO ANSWERS, he is trying to catch you out
3. Shamelessly embellish all answers with any relevant facts that you know

264

Where did Richard Wrangham begin his career?

At Gombe Stream under Jane Goodall

265

What is inclusive fitness?

The ego's reproductive output plus that of relatives

266

Inclusive fitness can underlie the social bonding of a group. How?

Because related individuals are favoured, as we see in the philopatric sex

267

Which researcher has studied sexual relationships among female bonobos?

Amy Parish

268

Physical stress can affect reproductive output. Give 2 examples of this.

1. Social/sexual relationships maximise repro output in bonobo females (Pan paniscus)
2. Harassment from new harem residents in langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) can cause spontaneous abortion in females

269

What evidence is there that sexual relationships have important social connotations in bonobos, outside of the reproductive context? Compare them to chimpanzees.

In bonobos:

1. Swellings develop earlier
2. A higher proportion of the cycle is spent in the tumescent state
3. Swellings reappear more quickly after parturition

270

What are the 3 benefits of coalition formation in bonobo females (Pan paniscus)?

1. Increased access to resources
2. Protection from male aggression
3. Increased repro output from stress relief

271

What is the Latin name of the western red colobus monkey, preferred food of the chimpanzee?

Procolobus badius

272

What genus do tarsiers belong to?

Tarsius

273

What is the genus name for the owl/night monkey?

Aotus

274

What is the name for the saddleback tamarin?

Saguinus fuscicollis

275

What genus do vervet monkeys belong to?

Chlorocebus

276

What is the Latin name for the empowered tamarin?

Saguinus imperator

277

What did Machiavelli write about in The Prince (sixteenth century)?

Immoral behaviour like dishonesty and infant killing in politics

278

What does 'Machiavellian' mean?

Something that implies deceit, deviousness and realpolitik

(Machiavellian intelligence requires diplomacy and deception to further the self)