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Flashcards in CASTLES Deck (12)
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1

HOW DID NORMANS CHANGE CASTLES

- very few castles built prior to 1066 and the only comparable things were burghs (fortified towns)
- first castles built by normans were wooden motte and Bailey castles
- first Norman castle was Pevensey castle, built when William when he landed at pevensey in September 1066
- between 1066 and 1086 the normans built 500 motte and Bailey castles
- by 1070 wood had been replaced by stone
- by 1086 48 large castles and many other small ones

2

PARTS OF A CASTLE

motte- large mound of earth, 5-7m high, fire proof
keep- wooden tower, provided a look out point and an elevated attack position for archers
Bailey- enclosed below motte, were the stables and barracks were for the garrison of soldiers
palisade- fence made of wood

3

PURPOSE OF CASTLES

- act as the centre of administration for the area
- to protect Norman settlers
- to intimidate local areas and show power
- control the area

4

WHY DID NORMANS BUILD CASTLES

strategic- housed soldiers who could put down rebellions, built at sites of importance to protect normans
symbolic- permanent reminder to English, dominated the landscape, normans often destroyed AS housing to make way for castles- show normans authority

5

WHERE WERE CASTLES BUILT

- areas of strategic importance0 many built along marshlands to protect normans from rebellions
- on high ground- to see attackers coming
- near existing towns
- near water supply and natural resources - to have easy access to them
- near natural defences- eg a bend in a river could be used as a moat

6

PEVENSEYS LOCATION

- built on south coats- typical as many were built on coast to protect from potential invasion and also the sea acted as a moat
- near a town- typical as many were built near towns for natural resources

7

WHY PEVENSEY WAS A GOOD LOCATION FOR WILLIAM

- provided a safe route in months after battle of Hastings increase a retreat was needed
- the castle meant it could be used as a base for other invasions
- offered a natural labour facing the normandy coast ad control of it ensured lines of communication with normandy

8

PURPOSE OF CASTLES- DEFEND

- Romans built 9 forts along south and east coat to defend from pirates
- when William landed he built a temp wooden fort and raid the roman tower to act as an observation point
- replaced wooden cakes with stone ones to protect leaders
- built castles in north to defend against Scottish raiders and rebellious locals

9

PURPOSE OF CASTLES- PREVENT ATTACKS

- when he landed he built s temp wooden fort and raised the tower
- replaced wooden ones with stone
- built castles in areas he thought would be a problem (marshland)
- Norman castles dominated the landscape and made it harder for resistance and rebellion to gain momentum

10

PURPOSE OF CASTLES- GOVERN

- castles protected garrisons
- had important economic and legal functions- most served as administrative centres store rooms and prisons
- built castles in troubled areas to control them
- dominated towns

11

CHANGES WILLIAM MADE TO PEVENSEY

- built a temp wooden fort to shelter troops
- cut ditch across peninsula to isolate ruins from mainland
- repaired roman walls
- raised tower in NW of inner Bailey for observation point

12

WHAT AS USED CASTLES FOR

- built burghs as