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Opthalmology > Cataracts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cataracts Deck (13)
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1

def

opacification of the lens of the eye

2

aetiology

majority of cases are idiopathic age related AKA 'senile cataracts'
there are also secondary causes which can be split into local, systemic and congenital

3

what are secondary local causes

previous eye trauma
uveitis

4

what are secondary systemic causes

diabetes, metabolic disorders (hypocalcaemia or WIlson's), drugs, X-ray + UV radiation

5

what are secondary congenital causes

downs
congenital rubella syndrome

6

what is a mneumonic for common causes of cataracts

CATARAct

Congenital (downs + turners)
Ageing (idiopathic)
TORCH infections
Accidents (trauma)
Radiation (X-ray or USS)
Abnormal metabolism (DM or wilsons)

7

what are TORCH infections

Toxoplasmosis
Other (syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19)
Rubella
CMV
Herpes infections

are the most common infection associated with congenital anomalies

8

epi

major cause of treatable blindness worldwide
increases with age

9

history

gradual onset of painless loss of vision, and colour appreciation
vision worsens in bright light (esp with central lens opacity)

10

examination

loss of red reflex and hazy lens appearance
reduced visual acuity

11

investigations

diagnosis made on history and examination
biometry which is required to assess appropriate intraocular lens implant

12

risk factors

age
exposure to sunlight
smoking + alcohol

13

would cataracts patients have double vision

yes
commonly monocular double vision