PassMedicine Flashcards Preview

Opthalmology > PassMedicine > Flashcards

Flashcards in PassMedicine Deck (39)
Loading flashcards...
1

what drug group commonly causes cataracts

corticosteroids

2

Sensorineural deafness, congenital cataracts, patent ductus arteriosus, purpuric skin lesions and 'salt and pepper' chorioretinitis

rubella

3

what causes rubella

togavirus

4

what are features of congenital rubella syndrome

sensorineural deafness
congenital cataracts + heart disease (PDA)
hepatosplenomegaly
'salt and pepper' chorioretinitis

5

how is congenital rubella syndrome diagnosed

IgM antibodies to togavirus

6

Infantile cataracts. No hepatic involvement are most characteristic of which type of inherited metabolic disorder?

galactokinase deficiency

7

what are features of classic galactosemia

failure to thrive
infantile cataracts
hepatomegaly

8

what are features of galactokinase deficiency

infantile cataracts
no hepatic involvement

9

A 25-year-old man with muscle weakness is reviewed in clinic. On shaking his hand he has difficultly loosening his grip. On examination he has frontal balding, bilateral ptosis and cataracts

myotonic dystrophy

10

what is the difference in myotonic dystrophy between DM1 and DM2

DM1 - distal weakness
DM2 - proximal weakness

11

A child presents with fever, conjunctivitis and being irritable. He has also developed a maculopapular rash which started behind ears before spreading and becoming blotchy & confluent

measles

12

Fever, malaise, muscular pain
Parotitis ('earache', 'pain on eating'): unilateral initially then becomes bilateral in 70%

mumps

13

A 5-year-old develops fever, pharyngitis and conjunctivitis

adenovirus

14

child with fever, conjunctivitis, desquamating rash, cracked lips, strawberry tongue

Kawasaki disease

15

what conditions present with a strawberry tongue

scarlet fever
kawasaki disease

16

what distinguishes scarlet fever and kawasaki disease

kawasaki has conjunctivitis and cracked lips

17

STI --> arthritis, urethritis, conjunctivitis

Reactive arthritis (reiters)

18

what is reiters syndrome

triad of urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis

"can't see, pee, or climb a tree"

19

Child with fever, conjunctivitis, white spots on buccal mucosa, rash starting behind ears

measles

20

what groups of drugs is glaucoma commonly associated with

corticosteroids

21

what eye conditions can corticosteroids cause

cataracts
glaucoma

22

what are the three main groups of drugs used to manage open-angle glaucoma

prostaglandin analogues
BB
sympathomimetics

23

an example of a prostaglandin analogue

latanoprost

24

MOA of prostaglandin analogues in glaucoma

mimics a prostaglandin and increases uveoscleral outflow decreasing intra-ocular pressure

25

MOA of BB in glaucoma

reduces aqueous production

26

MOA of sympathomimetics

an A2 adrenoreceptor agonist which reduces aqueous production and increases outflow

27

an elderly patient with a history of chronic glaucoma and hypertension presents with a sudden painless loss of vision in one eye. Fundoscopy reveals multiple flame-shaped haemorrhages and optic disc oedema

Central retinal vein occlusion

28

an elderly man presents an acute, painful red eye associated with decreased visual acuity. His symptoms are worse in the dark. On examination he has a semi-dilated non-reacting pupil

Acute angle closure glaucoma

29

an elderly patient with a history of hypertension and glaucoma presents with decreasing visual acuity and peripheral visual field loss. Fundoscopy reveals optic disc cupping

Primary open-angle glaucoma

30

MOA of pilocarpine

muscarinic receptor agonist