Flashcards in CBRN Defense Fundamentals Deck (31)
Explain the shape, colors, and purposes of the standard NATO and the information contained in them.
Chemical-Yellow background with red lettering (Name of agent/Date and time of detection)
Biological-Blue background with red lettering(Name of agent/Date and time of detection)
Radiological-White background with black lettering(Dose rate/Date&time of reading/date&time of burst)
Chemical minefield-Red background with yellow lettering and stripe(chemical agent in mine/date of emplacement)-front of marker facing away from minefield
Discuss the purpose of the M-40 field protective mask.
Designed to protect from chemical and biological agents. It consists of:
-Inlet and Outlet valves
-Water drinking system
Identify the CBRN alarms.
Vocal- GAS GAS GAS
Visual- Arms extended, fist formed, bend arms so fist reaches the ears three times
Percussion-Metal on metal ( metal triangles)
Discuss the proper way to don and clear a mask.
-Stop breathing, close mouth&eyes
-Place riffle between your legs
-Place headgear on weapon(remove glasses and contacts)
-Remove mask from its carrier
-Allow hood to hang down in front of the mask
-Put your chin into chin pocket face
-Clear mask by covering outlet valve with palm of one hand. Exhale sharply so the air escapes around the edges of the face piece
-Cover inlet port with palm of free hand and breathe in. If the face piece collapses, it's airtight.
-Repeat the steps until face piece is airtight
-Adjust the mask and make sure the straps lie flat against your head
-Resume breathing normally
-Mask must be donned, cleared, and sealed within 9 seconds. Additional 6 seconds is given to put the good in place
Explain Mission Oriented Protective Posture(MOPP) levels.
MOPP Ready- Mask is carried
MOPP 0- All MOPP gear is available but is not worn
MOPP 1- OVERGARMENT(worn open or closed) BOOTIES(carried) MASK(carried) GLOVES(carried)
MOPP 2- OVERGARMENT(worn open or closed) BOOTIES(worn) MASK(carried) GLOVES(carried)
MOPP 3- OVERGARMENT(worn open or closed) BOOTIES(worn) MASK(worn with hood open or closed) GLOVES(carried)
MOPP 4- OVERGARMENT(worn) BOOTIES(worn) MASK(worn) GLOVES(worn)
Explain the use of M9 paper.
M9 paper is normally issued 1 roll per squad or gun team and is worn around the ankles, wrists and biceps on the exterior of protective clothing.
-Unroll a small portion
-Blot, do not rub on suspected liquid
-Observe for a color change
-When in contact with contamination, color will appear as LIGHT PINK, REDDISH BROWN, or VIOLET TINT
Explain the uses of M8 paper.
M8 is issued with the field protective mask and the M256A1 chemical agent detector kit.
It is primarily used on suspected liquid forms such as PUDDLES, SMALL DROPS, or BARELY VISIBLE DROPLETS
-Remove M8 paper from M256A1 kit
-Test the liquid by exposing a sheet of M8 paper to the suspected liquid in the down position
-Blot, do not rub the M8 on suspected contamination
-Compare color changes by observing the colors shown on the inside cover of the book of M8 paper
Is carried out by individuals upon becoming contaminated.
There are three immediate techniques:
-Personnel wipe down
-Operator's spray down
Limits the spread of contamination to eliminate or reduce the duration of wearing MOPP gear.
It is carried by individuals or unit and is restricted to specific parts of essential equipment/material/working areas.
Two operational Decon techniques:
-Vehicle wash down
-MOPP gear exchange
Reduces or eliminates the need for protective clothing.
Is carried out by units to reduce contamination on personnel/equipment/working areas to maintain operations with minimal degradation.
Three thorough decon techniques:
-Detailed troop decon
-Detailed equipment decon
-Detailed aircraft Decon
Discuss the immediate actions required for a nuclear attack without warning.
React without weapon- Drop face down with head towards the blast and go behind cover(large rock, depression in earth's surface). Close eyes and protect exposed skin by putting hands and arms under or near the body.
React with weapon- Drop face down with head towards blast and go behind cover. Close eyes and protect exposed skin by placing hands under body. Place weapon under body with muzzle away from face and remain face down for 90 seconds or until debris stop falling. Use any protection available.
Discuss the immediate actions required for a chemical or biological attack without warning.
-Don and clear gas mask
-Sound the alarm
-Secure weapon, helmet and mask carrier
-Check for contamination and decontaminate as necessary
-Assume appropriate MOPP level
-Continue the mission
Nerve agents: Types, symptoms and treatment.
Nerve agents interfere with normal transmission of nerve impulses in the parasympathetic autonomous nervous system.
They are odorless and colorless and can penetrate through cloth either as liquid or vapor.
Symptoms: If vapor exposure, the pupils will constrict to a pinpoint. If skin exposure, there will be local muscular twitching. Other symptoms: rhinorrhea, dyspnea, diarrhea and vomiting, convulsions, hypersalivation, drowsiness, coma and unconsciousness.
Treatment: 3x(2mg auto injectors of ATROPINE) and 3x(600 mg auto injectors of 2-PAM CL). One of each injection every 10-15 min.
If you find someone with sever signs of nerve agent poisoning, administer in rapid succession 3 sets of antidotes.
Blister agents: Types, symptoms and treatment.
Primary action on the skin, producing large and painful blisters that are incapacitating.
Mustard and Nitrogen Mustard are OILY, COLORLESS or PALE YELLOW liquids.
Lewisite is a LIGHT TO DARK BROWN liquid that vaporizes slowly.
Types: Mustard(HD), Nitrogen Mustard(HN), Lewisite(L).
Symptoms(HD+HN): First noticeable symptom will be pain in the eyes, burns on the skin especially in warm and sweaty areas(armpits, groin, etc). If inhaled, irritation of the throat, hoarseness, cough. Also fever, moist tales, and dyspnea. Bronchopneumonia is a common complication. Blistering occurs in 12-48 hours.
Treatment: No specific antidotal tx. Physically removing ASAP the mustard is the most efficient way. The rest of tx is symptomatic.
Symptoms(Lewisite): Similar respiratory symptoms as HD&HN, differences is Lewisite causes intense pain upon contact.
Treatment(Lewisite): Decontaminate eyes by flushing with water, sodium sulfacetamide(30% solution) used for eye infection, morphine for pain. In case of systemic involvement, British Anti Lewisite(dimercaprol) injection of no more than 3mg/kg because is toxic.
Blood agents: Types, symptoms and treatment.
Blood agents come
In a gaseous state, have ALMOND LIKE odor and blocks oxygen transfer.
Types: Hydrocyanic Acid(AC), Cyanogen Chloride(CK)
Symptoms: Vary w concentración and exposure. After exposure, forceful increase in the depth of respirations for a few seconds, violent convulsions after 20,30 sec and respiratory failure with cessation of heart action within a few minutes.
If no blood agents in atmosphere, crush two ampules of AMYL NITRITE and hold it close to patient's nose. Repeat every few min until 8 ampules have been used.
If blood agents in atmosphere, insert crush ampules into the mask.
Intravenous sodium thiosulfate solution is required at 100-200mg/kg over a 9 min period.
Choking agents: Types, symptoms and treatment.
Choking agents are COLORLESS gasses with a NEW-MOWN HAY or FRESHLY CUT GRASS odor that causes damage to alveolar tissue resulting in severe pulmonary edema.
Types: Phosgene, Chlorine, Disphogene, Chloropicrin
Symptoms: Appear within 2-6 hours after exposure. Watering of the eyes, coughing, tightness in the chest. Latent sx: rapid, shallow and labored breathing, painful cough, cyanosis, frothy sputum, clammy skin, rapid pulse, low BP.
Treatment: Keep victims moderately warm, treat anoxia with oxygen. No specific tx, it has to be symptomatic.
Produce mental confusion. Administered by contaminating food or water or released as aerosols.
-Duration can be hours or days
Types: 3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate(BZ)
Symptoms: Appear 30min-Few hrs. Abnormal behavior, delusions, hallucinations, dizziness, muscular in coordination.
Treatment: Prevent from injuring of self and others. No specific tx however with BZ, PHYSOSTIGMINE is drug of choice, effective after 4 hours.
Riot control/Harassing Agents
Produce immediate but temporary effect in low concentrations.
Used to harass enemy personnel or to discourage riot actions.
Two types: Lacrimators and Vomiting agents
Local irritants that act primarily on eyes.
Types: CN and CS(more potent and causes more severe resp sx.
Symptoms: Intense pain in the eyes with excessive tearing.
Treatment: Expose eyes to fresh air. Chest discomfort can be relieved by talking. It adheres to clothing, so change of clothing is necessary.
Are dispersed as aerosols and produce their effects by inhalation or direct action to the eyes.
Types: DM(Adamsite), DA, DC.
Symptoms: Strong pepper like irritation in the upper resp tract, irritation of eyes, uncontrollable sneezing and coughing, nausea, vomiting, burning in the nose, throat, hypersalivation and rhinorrhea.
Treatment: Washing the skin and rinsing eyes and mouth with water. Mild analgesic to relieve headache.
Primary use to obscure vision. Exposure near the source indoors may cause illness or death.
Symptomatic treatment will suffice.
Pale, waxy solid that ignites on contact with air.
Symptoms: Irritation to the eyes, nose and throat.
Treatment: If burning particles embed in skin, must be covered with water, wet cloth or mud. Freshly mixed solution of 0.5 % copper sulfate may be used as rinse. Phosphorus particles must be surgically removed.
Cyanogen chloride: CK
Hydrogen cyanide: AC
SA – Arsine / Most Arsines
H – mustard gas
HD – distilled mustard gas / Sulfur mustard (HD, H)
L – Lewisite (L)
HL – mustard-lewisite mixture
HN – Nitrogen mustard (HN-1, HN-2, HN-3)
CX - Phosgene oxime (CX)
CL – chlorine
CG – Phosgene (CG)
DP – Diphosgene (DP)
KJ – stannic chloride
NC –80% chloropicrin, 20% stannic chloride
PS – Chloropicrin (PS)
Z – zyklon-B
CN, CS, CR
Pepper spray: OC
Tear gas: CN, CS, CR
CA – camite
CN – (mace) Chloracetophenone
CNB – mace-benzene mixture
CNC – mace-chloroform mixture
CS – (CS) gas / Orthoschlorobenzilidine
CS1 – micropulverized CS
CS2 – microencapsulated CS
GA – tabun
GB – sarin
GD – soman
GF – cyclosarin
VE – VE nerve agent
VG – Amiton (O,O-diethyl-S-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl] phosphorothioate)
VX – VX nerve agent
DM – Adamsite
DA – diphenylchlorarsine
DC – diphenylcyanoarsine
BZ - Agent 15
BZ – 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate / Quinuclidinyl benzilate
SN – sernyl (PCP)
K – lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)