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Name 3 climate skeptics and their job

Nigel Lawson: had equal debate on BBC with climate scientists implying they had equal weighting

Scott Pruit: head of EPA v against climate change

Trump: mixed messages, usa position on climate change unclear


What causes uncertainity in IPCC predictions? 2 things and 2 examples for each

Future behaviour: pop growth + econ growth
Chaotic climate system: solar flares + clouds not understood


Define mitigation and adaptation in terms of ACC

Mitigation: Stabilize GHG emissions (UNFCCC 1992) in order to stop climate change

Adaptation: Prepare for the impacts of CC and make practical decisions to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience to the changing climate


2 technical fixes suitable for adapting to climate change

2 out of:
increasing resource use efficiency#
flood defences (e.g. Holland)
Drought tolerant crops
Change building codes to fit future climates


Give 2 examples of a win-win adaptation and mitigation policy

coastal wetland restoration through increased vegetation; acts as a storm buffer and increases carbon sequestration (Moser 2012)
Soil conservation mitiagtes through increasing C storage + nitrogen fixation, adapts through improved nutrient and water retention and increased soil BD


What was Rio 1992

Rio Summit, United Nations Conference.
The Convention on Biological Diversity was opened for signature
Agreement on Climate Change convention that led to Kyoto Protocol and then Paris Agreement


What is the UNFCCC

• UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 1994 (UNFCCC)
International Environmental treaty to stabilize GHG emissions
Non-Binding limits on GHG emissions


What is COP, specifically COP21?

• Conference of Parties (COP)
Yearly conferences held in the framework of UNFCCC to assess progress in dealing with climate change

COP21 is the Paris Agreement


What happened when the US signed the Kyoto Protocol and when they signed the Paris Agreement?

Kyoto: US signed then Bush administration withdrew as they said the 'common but differentiated responsibilities meant MDCs were more affected + US economy would suffer

Paris: Obama signed, Trump elected then withdrew but committed for 5 years


What is a limitation of global international agreements?

Increased concern and little action


Summarize Moser 2012 article.

Harmonizing mitigation and adaptation policy is well intended and beneficial for actors and policy makers to secure funds etc, but this narrative encourages the glossing over of critical trade-offs between the two.


Name 2 adaptation measures that undermine mitigation.

1) Adaptation measure: desalinisation and increased water reuse
Mitigation implication: increased ongoing energy consumption

2)Adapation measure: Increase use of nitrogen fertilizer to offset potential yield losses
Mitigation implication: increased ongoing energy consumption

[Moser 2012]


Name 2 mitigation measures that undermine adaptation.

1) Mitigation measure: rapid switch to low GHG energy sources
Adaptation implication: increased energy prices, reduces economic development which disproportionately affects low income people and increases their vulnerability

2)Mitigation measure: replace liquid fossil fuels with biofuels
Adaptation implication: may reduce area for agriculture and affect food security

[Moser 2012]


Summarize Lashen article.

How idealized understandings of science increased public vulnerability to backlash campaigns (such as climategate) funded by the political and social elites.

Lashen 2013


What was Climategate?

2009, IPCC emails discussing how to limit access to data which threatened the scientific legitimacy of ACC. Backlash actors used this to suggest scientific malpractice and conspiracies around ACC.


What is 'Scientific Fundamentalism'

Belief that science is objective truth, separate from social and political influences.


How does scientific fundamentalism increase public vulnerability to backlashes against climate change?

It implies that science bearing the imprint of culture is worthless, therefore the climate science produced in today's society can be interpreted as worthless


name 2 ways idealized images of climate science were deployed.

1)ACC was posited as objective reality with 2 strong sides (believers and non-believers), when in fact was a scale.
2) Preserved ideas if neutrality idealized climate scientists, separate from the rest of the scientific community


Summarize Wynne 2010 article

Attention to CC policy has predominantly focused on either the truth of falsity of the claim that CC is human caused. Understanding the ambiguity of climate science is key.