Cell Adaption and Cell Necrosis Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Cell Adaption and Cell Necrosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Adaption and Cell Necrosis Deck (31):

What is Cellular Adaptation

Changes in cells, tissues, or organs due to prolonged exposure to adverse stimuli


What does Atrophy mean?

Decrease in size of tissue/organ/body


What are examples of Physiologic Atrophies?

1. Thymus shrinking with age

2. Overies, uterus and breast shrink after menopause


What are Pathologic Atrophies?

Ischemic organs (kidneys, testicles)

*Alzheimers Disease


What does Hypertrophy mean?

Increase in size of tissues/organs


What are Physiological examples of Hypertrophy

Increase in muscle size due to weights


What are Pathological examples of Hypertrophy

Concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle muscle due to hypertension and pressure overload


What is Hyperplasia?

An adaptive increase in the number of cells causing an enlargement of tissues or organs


What are some examples of Hyperplasia

Endometrial hyperplasia due to estrogen

Hyperplastic polyps of the colon or stomach


What are some examples of both Hypertrophy with Hyperplasia?

1. Physiological hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the uterine smooth muscle during pregnancy

2. BPH increases in both size and number of glands and stroma


What is Metaplasia

An adaptive change from one cell type to another to suit the enviornment


What is an example of metaplasia?

Stratified squamous metaplasia of the bronchial epithelium due to smoking

Barrets Esophagus


What is Dyplasia?

Disordered growth of tissues due to chronic inflammation or infection


What is an example of Dysplasia? What role does HPV play?

Cervical dysplasia (Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) due to HPV.

HPV infects stratified squamous epithelium


What is Anaplasia

Undifferentiated and uncontrolled growth of cells- Hallmark of malignant transformation


What are the examples of Anaplasia?

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

Lung Cancer

Malignant Melanoma

Renal Cell Carcinoma


What are the hallmarks of Anaplasia?

1. Cell and nuclei display cellular pleomorphism (vary in size and shape)

2. Nuclei are irregular and hyperchromatic

3. High N/C ratio

4. Large nucleoli within the nucleus

5. Large numbers of abnormal mitotic figures


What is the definition of necrosis?

What is the difference between Necrosis and Autolysis after death?

Death of cells or tissues

Necrosis is seen in living pt.
Autolysis is seen in tissues after death


What is Coagulative Necrosis

The most common form of necrosis. Occurs when cell proteins are altered or denatured, similar to the coagulation that occurs when cooking eggs.


What is an example of Coagulative necrosis?

Heart tissue going through anoxia (lack of oxygen) during an MI


What are the 4 types of Necrosis?

1. Coagulative
2. Liquefiactive
3. Caseous
4. Fat


What is Liquefactive Necrosis?

Dead cells liquify and become soft and gel-like due to enzymes


What is the best example of Liquefactive Necrosis?

Brain cells liquify in the event of a stroke/CVA


What is Caseous Necrosis?

A form of Coagulative necrosis that produces thick, yellow, cheesy substance


What is an example of Caseous Necrosis?

Tuberculosis within the lungs that form caseous necrosis called the Ghon complex


What is Fat Necrosis?

Liquefactive necrosis caused by lipolytic enzymes from a ruptured pancreas.

The degraded fat turns into glycerol and FF. And the FF bind with calcium to make soaps and calcified specks


What is the difference between Wet and Dry gangrene?

Necrotic tissue that has inflammation and secondary liquefaction is wet gangrene

Black, mummified, dried out tissue is dry gangrene


What is Dystrophic Calcifications?

Necrotic tissues that attract extracellular calcium deposits, often visible to the naked eye and are rock hard material


What are the 4 examples of Dystrophic Calcifications?

1. Calcifications in atherosclerotic coronary arteries

2. Calcifications of the Mitral or Aortic valves

3. Calcifications seen around breast cancers

4. Infant periventricular calcifications


What are Metastatic Calcifications?

Deranged calcium metabolism from high serum Ca levels that lead to Calcium deposits in other locations


What is an example of Metastatic Calcifications?

Vitamin D toxicity
Chronic Renal Failure