Flashcards in Cell Adaption and Cell Necrosis Deck (31):
What is Cellular Adaptation
Changes in cells, tissues, or organs due to prolonged exposure to adverse stimuli
What does Atrophy mean?
Decrease in size of tissue/organ/body
What are examples of Physiologic Atrophies?
1. Thymus shrinking with age
2. Overies, uterus and breast shrink after menopause
What are Pathologic Atrophies?
Ischemic organs (kidneys, testicles)
What does Hypertrophy mean?
Increase in size of tissues/organs
What are Physiological examples of Hypertrophy
Increase in muscle size due to weights
What are Pathological examples of Hypertrophy
Concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle muscle due to hypertension and pressure overload
What is Hyperplasia?
An adaptive increase in the number of cells causing an enlargement of tissues or organs
What are some examples of Hyperplasia
Endometrial hyperplasia due to estrogen
Hyperplastic polyps of the colon or stomach
What are some examples of both Hypertrophy with Hyperplasia?
1. Physiological hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the uterine smooth muscle during pregnancy
2. BPH increases in both size and number of glands and stroma
What is Metaplasia
An adaptive change from one cell type to another to suit the enviornment
What is an example of metaplasia?
Stratified squamous metaplasia of the bronchial epithelium due to smoking
What is Dyplasia?
Disordered growth of tissues due to chronic inflammation or infection
What is an example of Dysplasia? What role does HPV play?
Cervical dysplasia (Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) due to HPV.
HPV infects stratified squamous epithelium
What is Anaplasia
Undifferentiated and uncontrolled growth of cells- Hallmark of malignant transformation
What are the examples of Anaplasia?
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix
Renal Cell Carcinoma
What are the hallmarks of Anaplasia?
1. Cell and nuclei display cellular pleomorphism (vary in size and shape)
2. Nuclei are irregular and hyperchromatic
3. High N/C ratio
4. Large nucleoli within the nucleus
5. Large numbers of abnormal mitotic figures
What is the definition of necrosis?
What is the difference between Necrosis and Autolysis after death?
Death of cells or tissues
Necrosis is seen in living pt.
Autolysis is seen in tissues after death
What is Coagulative Necrosis
The most common form of necrosis. Occurs when cell proteins are altered or denatured, similar to the coagulation that occurs when cooking eggs.
What is an example of Coagulative necrosis?
Heart tissue going through anoxia (lack of oxygen) during an MI
What are the 4 types of Necrosis?
What is Liquefactive Necrosis?
Dead cells liquify and become soft and gel-like due to enzymes
What is the best example of Liquefactive Necrosis?
Brain cells liquify in the event of a stroke/CVA
What is Caseous Necrosis?
A form of Coagulative necrosis that produces thick, yellow, cheesy substance
What is an example of Caseous Necrosis?
Tuberculosis within the lungs that form caseous necrosis called the Ghon complex
What is Fat Necrosis?
Liquefactive necrosis caused by lipolytic enzymes from a ruptured pancreas.
The degraded fat turns into glycerol and FF. And the FF bind with calcium to make soaps and calcified specks
What is the difference between Wet and Dry gangrene?
Necrotic tissue that has inflammation and secondary liquefaction is wet gangrene
Black, mummified, dried out tissue is dry gangrene
What is Dystrophic Calcifications?
Necrotic tissues that attract extracellular calcium deposits, often visible to the naked eye and are rock hard material
What are the 4 examples of Dystrophic Calcifications?
1. Calcifications in atherosclerotic coronary arteries
2. Calcifications of the Mitral or Aortic valves
3. Calcifications seen around breast cancers
4. Infant periventricular calcifications
What are Metastatic Calcifications?
Deranged calcium metabolism from high serum Ca levels that lead to Calcium deposits in other locations