When/where is coagulative necrosis seen?
in the heart following an MI
Compare and contrast the cytoplasm’s changes in necrosis vs apoptosis.
necrosis = swelling apoptosis = shrinking
Name the 4 classic types of adaptation.
1) hypertrophy 2) atrophy 3) metaplasia 4) hyperplasia
Describe liquefactive necrosis.
dead cell dissolves away as lysosomal hydrolases digest cellular components
Why is blood flow decreased in hypothermia?
vasoconstriction with increased blood viscosity
What happens when the cell adapts via metaplasia?
one type of tissue is replaced with another
Infection of a burn can lead to ____, _____, _____, or ____.
endocarditis, sepsis, septic shock, renal failure
How does electricity cause injury or death?
disruption of neural impulses, spasm of chest muscles burns
Name 4 areas of the cell that are affected early when the cell is damaged.
1) cell membrane 2) mitochondria 3) ER 4) nucleus
What are the 2 types of heat stroke?
1) exertional 2) classic
What cells signify an chronic disease?
lymphocytes and macs
Give an example of adaptation via atrophy.
shrinkage of skeletal muscles following motor neuron loss
What are the signs/symptoms of classic heat stroke?
hot, dry skin; respiratory alkalosis
Give an example of adaptation via hypertrophy.
enlargement of the L ventricle 2a to severe, long-term hypertension (myocytes are working harder)
What happens to the cell membrane early on when a cell is injured?
lipid peroxidation; accumulation of Na+ and H2O causes cell to swell
What cells signify an acute disease?
Name 2 types of cell death.
1) apoptosis 2) necrosis
What happens to the nucleus early on when a cell is injured?
nucleolus appears to change; rRNA synthesis is decreased
In a ______ burn, the dermis and dermal appendages survive but usually show blistering.
When/where is fat necrosis seen?
acute pancreatitis or trauma in adipose tissue
How does acute inflammation damage tissues?
PMNs in the area release enzymes that produce oxygen radicals
Most human disease occurs from injury to _____.
In a full thickness burn, there is total destruction of the _____ and _____.
Give an example of adaptation via hyperplasia.
the increased # of adrenocortical cells secondary to tumor that secretes ACTH
What is a free radical?
a chemical species with an unpaired electron
How does anemia result from a serious burn?
bone marrow production is suppressed
What are the irreversible changes in hypoxia?
1) activation of lysosomal enzyme 2) DNA and protein degradation 3) increased Ca2+ influx
Cell death from ischemia is called _____.
Name 4 different kinds of necrosis.
1) caseous 2) liquefactive 3) fat 4) coagulative
In a ______ burn, there is total destruction of the epidermis and dermis.
What is the result of ER injury?
decreased protein synthesis
What do free radicals damage?
DNA, RNA, proteins
Give an example of adaptation via metaplasia.
chronic reflux causes replacement of stratified squamous epi with columnar epi in the esophagus
Name 2 pathogens commonly seen in infections secondary to burns.
1) Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2) staph
What happens when the cell adapts via hypertrophy?
cell increases in size and # of organelles 2a to an increase in function
What are the reversible changes in hypoxia?
1) decreased ATP 2) decreased Na pump (cell swelling) 3) increased glycolysis 4) decreased protein synthesis
What is rhabdomyolysis?
breakdown of skeletal muscle fibers
What do free radicals trigger?
lipid peroxidation of membranes
Compare and contrast the amount of cells involved in necrosis vs apoptosis.
necrosis = large areas of tissue apoptosis = single cells
When/where is caseous necrosis.
only in Tb
What happens to the mitochondria early on when a cell is injured?
O2-dependent ATP synthesis is decreased, so ion pumps fail and the mitochondria swells
What is karyorrhexis?
a fragmented nucleus
What is karyolysis?
breakdown and removal of the fragmented nucleus
What happens when the cell adapts via hyperplasia?
the # of cells in the tissue increases
What happens to the chromosomal DNA in necrosis vs apoptosis?
necrosis = it is degraded into nonspecific fragments apoptosis = internucleosomal pattern of DNA breakage
Neurons can survive ____ without oxygen and muscles can survive _____.
3-5 minutes; several hours
How does reperfusion damage tissues?
xanthine oxidase produces free radicals
What happens when cells and tissues are frozen?
increased local concentrations of salt; proteins denature; organelles are injured
Name 3 general types of free-radical eliminators.
1) antioxidants 2) catalase 3) glutathione peroxidase
What does the morbidity and mortality of a burn injury depend on?
1) total area burned 2) depth of burn 3) thermal injury to lung 4) effective treatment
When/where is liquefactive necrosis seen?
acute infection of the brain and spleen
Describe caseous necrosis.
central portion of the lymph node is necrotic and chalky-white
What happens when the cell adapts via atrophy?
cell decreases in size and functional capacity
Name 4 complications of serious burns.
1) neurogenic shock and fluid loss 2) infection 3) hypermetabolic state 4) anemia
What are the signs/symptoms of exertional heat stroke?
dry, hot skin; lactic acidosis
Pyknosis, karyorrhexis, and karyolysis are all parts of _____.
What can classic heat stroke lead to?
How does O2 therapy damage tissues?
high levels of toxic oxygen radicals are produced
Name 2 important free radicals.
O2- and •OH
How does the cell restore its ion concentrations after cell damage?
by repairing its membranes
What happens to the ER early on when a cell is injured?
cisternae distend and polyribosomes detach
In a partial thickness burn, the _____ and _____ survive but usually show ____.
dermis; dermal appendages; blistering
What can exertional heat stroke lead to?
rhabdomyolysis, necrosis of renal tubules (ATN), DIC, multi-organ failure
What is fat necrosis?
fats are hydrolyzed into free fatty acids that precipitate Ca2+ producing a chalky-gray material
How can hypothermia lead to death?
slowing of metabolic processes, esp in the brain
What is coagulative necrosis?
cytoplasm more eosinophilic; nucleus shrinks; chromatin becomes basophilic and clumps
Name 2 examples of antioxidants.
1) uric acid 2) vitamin E