Flashcards in Cell-as-a-Unit-of-Health-and-Disease Deck (41):
Specialized tye of "grinder" that selectively chews up denatured proteins, releasing peptides
It synthesizes new proteins for the plasma membrane
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Abundant in liver and gonads where it is used for steroid hormone and lipoprotein synthesis, and modification of hydrophobic compounds into water-soluble molecules
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Intracellular organelles that contain degradative enzymes that permit digestion of macromolecules
Cell organelle that break down fatty acids, generating hydrogen peroxide in the process
The ability of cells to adopt a particular shape, maintain polarity, organize relationship of intracellular organelles, and move about depends on this intracellular scaffolding of proteins
It shuttles internalized material to the appropriate intracellular siters or direct newly synthesized materials to the cell surface or targeted organelle.
Source of ATP and metabolic intermediates needed for anabolic metabolism, site of heme synthesis, and contain important sensors of cell damaga that can initiate and regulate the process of programmed cell death.
Water and carbon dioxide diffuse across the cell lipid bilayers through what process (type of diffusion)
Passive membrane diffusion
The process by which large molecules are exported from cells.
The movement of endocytosed vesicles between the apical and basolateral compartments of cells for transferring large amount of protein across epithelial barrier and rapid movement of large volumes of solute.
Non-coated plasma membrane invagination ("little caves") associated with cAMP, GPI-linked molecules, SRC-family kinases, and folate receptor.
A fluid-phase process during which the plasma membrane invaginates and is pinched off to form a cytoplasmic vesicle.
Major uptake mechanism for macromolecules such as transferrin and LDL, which bind to receptors localized in clathrin coated pits.
Most abundant cytosolic protein in cells.
They serve as connecting cables for "molecular motor" proteins that use ATP to move vesicles, organelles, or other molecules.
Cell junction that seal adjacent cells together to create a continuous barrier that restrics paracellular movement of ions and other molecules.
Occluding junctions (tight junctions)
Cell junctions that mechanically attach cells and their intracellular cytoskeletons to other cells or to extracellular matrix.
Anchoring junctions (desmosomes) (tight junctions)
Junctions that mediate the passage of chemical or electrical signals from one cell to another.
Communicating junctions (gap junctions)
Cell organelle that consists of stacked cisternae that progressively modify protein
Cell-cell signaling pathway: cells in immediate vicinity are affected.
Cell-cell signaling pathway: molecules secreted by a cell affect tat same cell.
Cell-cell signaling pathway: activated neurons secrete neurotransmitters at specialized cell junctions onto target cells.
Cell-cell signaling pathway: A mediator is released into the bloodstream and acts on target cells at a distance.
Vitamin D and steroid hormones are cell-permeable ligands for this type of receptor.
Its major role is to stimulate the activity of genes required for cell growth and cell division.
Growth factor: Stimulate keratinocyte migration and formation of granulation tissue
Epidermal growth factor
Growth factor: stimulate proliferation of hepatocytes and other epithelial cells.
Transforming growth factor-alpha(TGF-a)
Growth factor: enhances proliferation of hepatocytes and increases cell motility
Hepatocyte growth factor
Growth factor: stimulates proliferation of endothelial cells and increases vascular permeability
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
Growth factor: chemotactic for neutrophils, fibroblasts, and smooth muscles, and activates proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells.
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (VEGF)
Growth factor: chemotactic and mitogenic for fibroblasts and stimulates angiogenesis and ECM protein synthesis
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) (VEGF)
Component of ECM responsible for the ability of tissues to recoil and recover their shape after physical deformation.
Component of ECM that confer resistance to compressive forces, also provide lubrication between bony surfaces.
The most abundant glycoprotein in basement membrane.
A major component of the interstitial ECM.
A large family of transmembrane glycoproteins that allow cells to attach to ECM constituents, linking the intracellular cytoskeleton with the outside world.
Sequence of events in cell cycle
G1/Presynthetic growth-S/DNA synthesis-G2/Premitotic growth- M/mitotic phase
Two important properties of stem cells
Self-renewal and asymmetric division
Most undifferentiated stem cells which are totipotent, and can be induced to form specialized cells of all three germ cell layers.
Embryonic stem cells