Cell-as-a-Unit-of-Health-and-Disease Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Cell-as-a-Unit-of-Health-and-Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell-as-a-Unit-of-Health-and-Disease Deck (41):
1

Specialized tye of "grinder" that selectively chews up denatured proteins, releasing peptides

Proteasomes

2

It synthesizes new proteins for the plasma membrane

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

3

Abundant in liver and gonads where it is used for steroid hormone and lipoprotein synthesis, and modification of hydrophobic compounds into water-soluble molecules

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

4

Intracellular organelles that contain degradative enzymes that permit digestion of macromolecules

Lysosomes

5

Cell organelle that break down fatty acids, generating hydrogen peroxide in the process

Peroxisomes

6

The ability of cells to adopt a particular shape, maintain polarity, organize relationship of intracellular organelles, and move about depends on this intracellular scaffolding of proteins

Cytoskeleton

7

It shuttles internalized material to the appropriate intracellular siters or direct newly synthesized materials to the cell surface or targeted organelle.

Endosomal vesicles

8

Source of ATP and metabolic intermediates needed for anabolic metabolism, site of heme synthesis, and contain important sensors of cell damaga that can initiate and regulate the process of programmed cell death.

Mitochondria

9

Water and carbon dioxide diffuse across the cell lipid bilayers through what process (type of diffusion)

Passive membrane diffusion

10

The process by which large molecules are exported from cells.

Exocytosis

11

The movement of endocytosed vesicles between the apical and basolateral compartments of cells for transferring large amount of protein across epithelial barrier and rapid movement of large volumes of solute.

Transcytosis

12

Non-coated plasma membrane invagination ("little caves") associated with cAMP, GPI-linked molecules, SRC-family kinases, and folate receptor.

Caveolae

13

A fluid-phase process during which the plasma membrane invaginates and is pinched off to form a cytoplasmic vesicle.

Pinocytosis

14

Major uptake mechanism for macromolecules such as transferrin and LDL, which bind to receptors localized in clathrin coated pits.

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

15

Most abundant cytosolic protein in cells.

Actin

16

They serve as connecting cables for "molecular motor" proteins that use ATP to move vesicles, organelles, or other molecules.

Microtubules

17

Cell junction that seal adjacent cells together to create a continuous barrier that restrics paracellular movement of ions and other molecules.

Occluding junctions (tight junctions)

18

Cell junctions that mechanically attach cells and their intracellular cytoskeletons to other cells or to extracellular matrix.

Anchoring junctions (desmosomes) (tight junctions)

19

Junctions that mediate the passage of chemical or electrical signals from one cell to another.

Communicating junctions (gap junctions)

20

Cell organelle that consists of stacked cisternae that progressively modify protein

Golgi apparatus

21

Cell-cell signaling pathway: cells in immediate vicinity are affected.

Paracrine signaling

22

Cell-cell signaling pathway: molecules secreted by a cell affect tat same cell.

Autocrine signaling

23

Cell-cell signaling pathway: activated neurons secrete neurotransmitters at specialized cell junctions onto target cells.

Synaptic signaling

24

Cell-cell signaling pathway: A mediator is released into the bloodstream and acts on target cells at a distance.

Endocrine signaling

25

Vitamin D and steroid hormones are cell-permeable ligands for this type of receptor.

Intracellular receptors

26

Its major role is to stimulate the activity of genes required for cell growth and cell division.

Growth factors

27

Growth factor: Stimulate keratinocyte migration and formation of granulation tissue

Epidermal growth factor

28

Growth factor: stimulate proliferation of hepatocytes and other epithelial cells.

Transforming growth factor-alpha(TGF-a)

29

Growth factor: enhances proliferation of hepatocytes and increases cell motility

Hepatocyte growth factor

30

Growth factor: stimulates proliferation of endothelial cells and increases vascular permeability

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

31

Growth factor: chemotactic for neutrophils, fibroblasts, and smooth muscles, and activates proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells.

Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (VEGF)

32

Growth factor: chemotactic and mitogenic for fibroblasts and stimulates angiogenesis and ECM protein synthesis

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) (VEGF)

33

Component of ECM responsible for the ability of tissues to recoil and recover their shape after physical deformation.

Elastin

34

Component of ECM that confer resistance to compressive forces, also provide lubrication between bony surfaces.

Proteoglycan

35

The most abundant glycoprotein in basement membrane.

Laminin

36

A major component of the interstitial ECM.

Fibronectin

37

A large family of transmembrane glycoproteins that allow cells to attach to ECM constituents, linking the intracellular cytoskeleton with the outside world.

Integrins

38

Sequence of events in cell cycle

G1/Presynthetic growth-S/DNA synthesis-G2/Premitotic growth- M/mitotic phase

39

Two important properties of stem cells

Self-renewal and asymmetric division

40

Most undifferentiated stem cells which are totipotent, and can be induced to form specialized cells of all three germ cell layers.

Embryonic stem cells

41

Variety of stem cell with limited repertoire of differentiated cells that they can generate.

Tissue stem cells