Flashcards in Cell Biology Deck (60)
What do A, G, T, C and U represent?
They represent the names of bases of DNA (a,t,g,c) and RNA (a,g,c and U).
What is an active site?
The position on the surface if an enzyme molecule to which a specific substrate molecule can bind.
What is active transport?
The movement of a substance across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.
What is aerobic respiration?
The release of energy from foods such as glucose using Oxygen; also produces water and Carbon dioxide.
What is ADP?
Adenosine diphosphate. When combined with phosphate makes ATP.
What is an amino acid?
The building block of proteins.
What is an antibody?
Y-shaped protein that is involved in the defence of animals.
Laboratory procedures designed to prevent contamination and keep sterile conditions are known as?
What is the name of the important chemical involved in transfer of energy in cells. It contains Adenosine and 3 inorganic phosphates.
ATP - Adenosine triphosphate.
What are base pairs?
Complementary bases found in DNA. A-T & G-C
What is carbon fixation?
A stage of photosynthesis which does not require light where carbon dioxide is combined with hydrogen to make carbohydrates (glucose/sugar).
What is the name of a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is left unaltered after the reaction?
What is a cell culture?
The growth of cells in artificial conditions and in isolation of their original source.
Where do chromosomes become aligned during cell division (mitosis)?
The equator of a cell.
What are the features of the cell membrane?
It consists of a double layer of lipid molecules with associated proteins and controls the movements of substances into and out of the cell.
What organisms contain a cell wall?
Plants, fungi and some bacteria.
Cellulose is the main structural component of what?
Cell walls in plants.
What is the name of the green pigment in chloroplasts that absorbs light energy?
What is a chloroplast?
An organelle containing Chlorophyll; it's the site of photosynthesis.
What is a chromatid?
A copy of a chromosome visible during cell division (mitosis).
What is composed of DNA that codes for all characteristics in an organism, contains hereditary material and is found in the nucleus of a cell?
What is the difference in concentration between substances inside and outside of a cell called?
The concentration gradient.
What is it called when an enzyme breaks a large molecule into smaller molecules?
Definition of denaturation and what causes it?
Change to the shape and structure of an enzyme which stops it functioning. Usually happens due to high temperatures or extremes of pH
Definition of diffusion.
Passive movement of small molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration down the concentration gradient through a selectively permeable membrane.
What is it called when a cell contains 2 sets of chromosomes?
What is DNA?
A chemical which forms chromosomes that carries genetic information of an organism.
What is the shape of DNA called?
Double stranded helix
Definition of an enzyme.
Protein produced by living cells that acts as a biological catalyst.