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Flashcards in Cell Biology Deck (116)
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1

discrepancy

Exceptions to a general trend

2

discrepancies to the cell theory

- striated muscle
- fungi
- algae
- red blood cells

3

striated muscles

The type of tissue used for movement

4

Why are muscle fibres different from typical animal cells?

- they are much larger than most animal cells
- they have more than one nucleus (up to hundreds)

5

Why are fungi different from typical cells?

- made up of hyphae, which are narrow tubelike structures
- have many nuclei spread out along the hyphae

6

Why are algae different from typical cells?

- autotrophic (they photosynthesise) and have a simpler structure than plants (due to being unicellular)
- can grow to be much larger than normal cells despite being unicellular and mononuclear

7

key components of a cell

- plasma membrane
- cytoplasm
- DNA
- ribosomes

8

prokaryote

simple, single-called organism lacking a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles

9

components of a prokaryote

- cell membrane
- cell wall
- pili
- flagellum
- nucleoid
- circular DNA

10

why are RBCs different from typical cells?

lacks:
- nucleus
- organelles

they can't synthesise proteins either

11

Common features of all cells

- cell membrane
- genetic material storing all instructions for cell activities
- most of the activities are chemical reactions catalysed by enzymes produced inside the cell
- has its own internal energy release system

12

functions of life

- metabolism
- response
- homeostasis
- growth
- reproduction
- nutrition
- excretion

13

metabolism

the chemical reactions occurring in organisms to maintain life

14

response

the ability to react to changes in the environment

15

growth

an irreversible increase in size

16

excretion

the ability to remove waste products occurring as a consequence of metabolism

17

metabolism

chemical reactions occurring for the purpose of releasing energy

18

homeostasis

keeping the internal conditions of the organism stable and relatively constant

19

reproduction

producing offspring

20

how does paramecium exhibit the nutrition function of life

by ingesting small organisms and digesting through endocytosis

21

how does chlamydomonas exhibit the nutrition function of life

contains a chloroplast, so it produces its own food via photosynthesis

22

how does paramecium exhibit the growth function of life

nutrients from digestion are used to provide energy and materials required for growth

23

how does chlamydomonas exhibit the growth function of life

can grow through the absorption of minerals and photosynthesis

24

how does paramecium exhibit the excretion function of life

waste products from metabolism are removed by diffusing out of the membrane

25

how does chlamydomonas exhibit the excretion function of life

waste products from photosynthesis are removed via diffusion

26

how does paramecium exhibit the response function of life

cilia helps the cell move around - it moves toward or away from external stimuli

27

how does paramecium exhibit the metabolism function of life

paramecium contains enzymes in the cytoplasm that catalyse metabolic reactions

28

how does paramecium exhibit the reproduction function of life

paramecium can undergo asexual (mitotic) as well as sexual (meiotic) reproduction

29

how does paramecium exhibit the homeostasis function of life

contractile vacuoles in the cell fill up with water and remove it from the cell by expelling it through the plasma membrane, keeping water levels constant

30

how does chlamydomonas exhibit the response function of life

chlamydomonas have an eyespot that can detect light - it moves towards light, exhibiting response to external stimuli