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Flashcards in Molecular Biology Deck (41)
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1

importance of carbon

- the most important element to life

- basic building block that can be used to make a wide range of different molecules

- forms covalent compounds

2

importance of hydrogen

- forms part of water

- forms hydrogen bonds, which gives water many of its properties

- bonds to carbon to form hydrocarbons

3

importance of nitrogen

- aids in digestion and growth

- necessary for foetus development

4

importance of Sulfur

- makes up some amino acids

- protects cells from environmental hazards (e.g. pollution, radiation)

- helps liver to function properly

- important in forming blood clots

- keeps skin supple and elastic

5

importance of calcium

- bone and teeth formation

- muscle growth

- electrical impulses in the brain

- aids in blood clotting

- helps maintain blood pressure

6

importance of iron

- component of haemoglobin

- aids in tendon and ligament formation

- needed to maintain a healthy immune system

7

importance of sodium

- needed for nerve impulses to be sent

- important part of blood plasma

- maintains the proper amount of water in our blood

8

importance of phosphorus

- found in membrane structures

- needed for healthy formation of bones and teeth

- central part of energy storage system

- aids in cell growth and repair

9

characteristics of water

polar molecule due to oxygen-hydrogen dipole

10

thermal properties of water

- high specific heat capacity

- high latent heat of vaporisation

- high boiling point but can evaporate below boiling point

- bc of the strong hydrogen bonds

- this makes water an effective coolant

11

cohesive properties of water

- water molecules stick to each other

- due to hydrogen bonds forming between them

12

solvent properties of water

- many substances can dissolve in water

- due to water's polarity

13

organic compounds

based on carbon and can be found in living things
e.g. lipids, proteins, carbohydrates

14

inorganic compounds

anything that isn't organic

15

properties of amino acids

- monomers that combine to form polypeptides, which in turn form proteins

- they are all soluble and have the same structure (except the R group)

16

carbohydrates

- monosaccharides
- disaccharides
- polysaccharides

17

monosaccharide

- carbohydrates with relatively small molecules

- soluble in water

- taste sweet

18

significance of glucose

- all cells use glucose to respire

- building block for a lot of larger molecules

19

ribose

- a pentose (5-carbon sugar)

- deoxyribose is a modified version, used in DNA as the sugar phosphate backbone

20

fatty acids

- the basis of triglycerides and many other lipids

- the basis of phospholipids

- hydrophobic

21

structural characteristics of fatty acids

- mostly made up of 16-18 C atoms but can be anywhere from 14-22

- the carboxyl end (you can tell by the C=O double bond) is hydrophilic

- forms spheres called micelles in water (imagine a round phospholipid bilayer, sans proteins and double tail)

22

examples of monosaccharides

- glucose

- galactose

- fructose

23

examples of disaccharides

- lactose: glucose + galactose

- sucrose: glucose + glucose

- maltose: glucose + fructose

24

examples of polysaccharides

- glycogen

- cellulose

- starch

25

most common elements in biological organisms

- carbon

- hydrogen

- oxygen

26

triglycerides

simple lipids

e.g. fats, oils

27

functions of lipids

- energy store: lipids transfer twice as much energy as carbohydrates

- metabolic water source: when fats are used in respiration, both energy and water are released

- thermal insulation

- buoyancy: fat isn't as dense as muscle/bone

- electrical insulation: lipids form myelin sheaths around nerve cells

- hormone: steroids can act as hormones

- cell receptors: glycolipids' role in phospholipid bilayer

- structure: e.g. phospholipid bilayer

28

DNA nucleotide components

- pentose sugar (ribose for RNA, deoxyribose for DNA)
- phosphate
- nitrogen base

29

types of nitrogen bases

- cytosine (C)
- guanine (G)
- adenine (A)
- thymine (T)
- uracil (U)

30

DNA structure:

- 2 anti-parallel polynucleotide chains

- double helix spiral structure

- held together by hydrogen bonds

- sugar-phosphate backbone

- complementary base pairing: A to T, G to C

- base order: G C T A