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GCSE Biology Paper 1 > Cell Biology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Biology Deck (71)
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1

Give two examples of a Erukaryotic cell

-animal cell
-plant cell

2

What is a difference between a prokaryotic and eucaryotic cell?

-a eukariyotic cell has a nucleus

3

What does a nucleus contain

DNA

4

Define a Eukaryotic cell

a cell that contains genetic material (DNA) in an enclosed nucleus

5

What are the 3 main features of the Eukaroyotic cell?

-cell membrane (NOT cell wall)
-cytoplasm
-nucleus

6

Name an example of a prokaroyotic cell

-bacteria cell

7

What are the features of a prokaroyotic cell

-the genetic material is not enclosed in a nucleus
-the cells are much smaller

8

How does the prokaroyotic cell contain its DNA

-within a single loop
-or maybe a small ring of DNA

9

What are the structrail features of a prokaryotic cell?

-Cell membrane
-bacterial cell wall
-no nucleus
-loops of DNA and plasmids
-cyctoplasm

10

how big is a typical human cell?

10-20 micro meters

11

What is magnitude?

A way of saying if something is greater or smaller

12

What is one order of magnitude?

10x

13

What is the Cytoplasm

a watery solution, where chemical reactions take place
-for example the first stage of respiration

14

What is the cell membrane

controls molecules that can enter and leave the cell

15

What is the mitochondria

where aerobic respiration takes place inside the cell

16

What are Ribohsomes

They are the sites of protein synthesis

17

what are the structuial features of the plant cells

-they have a regualr shape
-vacuole
-nuclues
-cytoplasm
-cell membrane
-mitochondria
-ribhosomes
-choloroplasts
-cell wall

18

What are chloroplasts?

-found in plant cells
-contain cholorplasts
-site of photosynthesis

19

What is the cell wall?

-found in plant cells
-made from cellulose
-strengthens the cell wall

20

what is a vacuole?

-found in plant cells
-filled with a fluid called cell sap
-helps plant keep its shape

21

Give three examples of animal cells that are specilised

-sperm cell
-nerve cell
-muscle cells

22

What is differensiation

when cells have become specilised

23

How are sperm cells specialised

-only conatin half of the chromosones
-long tail - can swim
-streamline
-has mitrocondria - creates energy
-enzymes - can digest there way through the ovum

24

How is a nerve cell specilised

-has a long axon
-wrapped in Myelin - speeds up transmission
-end has synapses - allow charge to flow from one to another
-has dendrites - can cnnect to other cells easily

25

How are muscle specialised?

-can contract (get smaller)
-protein fibres that can change there length
-packed full of mitochondria - can create energy
-they work together to form a tissue

26

Give 3 examples of specialised plant cells

-root hair cells
-xylem cells
-phloem tubes

27

How are root hair cells specialised?

-increase surface area - absorb water and dissolve minerals
-Do not contain chloroplast - can't get light

28

How are xylem cells specilised

-Have very thick walls with lignin (lignin kills the cells)
-The end walls between the cells have broken down - flow easily
-has no nucleus, cytoplasm, ribhosomes or vacuole - this makes it easier for water and minerals to flow

29

How are pholem cells specilised

-it has phloem vessel cells - little cytoplasm - this means that they have a companion cells with everything they need
-this provides energy as it has mitochondria

30

What do microscopes do?

magnify an image