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GCSE Biology Paper 1 > Organisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organisation Deck (96)
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1

What is a tissue

a group of cells working together to complete a specific function

2

What is an organ

a group of tissues working together to complete a specific function

3

What is an organ system?

a group of organs working together to complete a specific function

4

What are the three main nutrients gained from foods?

-Carbohydrates
-proteins
-lipids (fats)
-all these are large molecules. They have to be digested as they can't be absorbed into the blood stream

5

What is digestion?

The break down of large food molecules into smaller ones via digestion so it can be absorbed into the blood stream

6

What is the first stage of the digetive system?

-first food is chewed in the mouth
-amylase in the saliva begin to digest starch into smaller sugar molecules
-the saliva helps make the food into a bulas, so the food can pass down into the oesphagus

7

What is the second stage of the digestive system

-the oesphagus squeezes the food down the oesphagues into the stomach
-the food passes into the stomach. This is where the digestion of proteins begins. There is also HydroCloric acid in the stomach. This helps to break down the proteins.
-There is a churning action in the stomach that turns the food into a fluid, increasing surface area for enzymes to digest

8

What is the third stage of the digestive system

-the fluid passes into the digestive system.
-the pancreaus and liver release chemcials into the small intestine.
-the pancreus releases amylase, lipase and protease that continue digestion of starch and protein.
-the liver releases bile and speeds up the digestion of lipids as it neutrilises acid from the stomach.

9

What is the fourth stage to the digestive system

-the walls of the small intestine release protease and lipease to continue the breakdown of protein and lipids. as the food molecules are smaller, some are absorbed into the blood stream by active transport or diffusion

10

What is the fith stage of the digestive system

-the fluid makes its way through the large intestine, where the water is absorbed into the bloodstream
-feeces are released from the body

11

What are the products of the digestive system used for

-new carbohydrates
-new lipids
-new proteins
-glucose produced is used in respiration

12

What are enzymes?

-large protein molecules that speed up reactions

13

What is the active site

-This is where the substrate (molecule breaking down) locks on to

14

How is the substrate described to attach to the active site?

-like a lock and key
-only some elements are able to break down with the enzymes

15

What enzyme breaks down proteins?

-protease

16

What are proteins

-these are long chains of chemicals called ammino acids

17

What happens when protease breaks down the proteins

-the proteins are broken down into there induvidual acids where they are absobed into the blood stream

18

What happens to the structure of the proteins when they are absored into the bloodstream.

They are re structured to make human proteins - these are used for growth and repair

19

What is the structure of starch?

-chains of glucose molecules

20

What is the enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates?

-carbohydrases

21

what enzyme breakes down starch specifically

-amylase

22

What happens when carbohydrates are digested

-simple sugars are produced

23

Where is amylase found

-saliva
-pancreatic fluid

24

What is the structure of a lipid

one molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids

25

What are lipid molecules digested by?

-lipase

26

What product is formed when lipids are broken down?

-glycerol
-fatty acids

27

Where is lipase found?

-pancreatic fluid
-small intestine

28

Where is bile made and stored

-made in the liver
-stored in the gullbladder

29

What is the function of bile

-speed up the digestion of lipids
-neutrilise acids

30

how does bile speed up the digestion of lipids

-it converts small droplets of lipids into larger droplets
-it is said that it emulsifies
-it largly increases the surface area and increases the rate of lipid breakdown by lipase