Flashcards in Cell biology of tissues Deck (24)
Types of human cells
Examples of epithelial cells
Layers of cells lining organs and forming boundaries between tissue and compartments
Examples of mesenchymal cells
Cells of the connective tissue, fibroblasts, chondrocytes, osteocytes
Examples of contractile tissues
Skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle
Examples of haematopoietic cells
Blood cells, immune cells, bone marrow progenitor cells
Examples of neural cells
Neurones, glial cells
Cell type affected in cancers
Carcinomas - epithelial cells
Sarcomas - mesenchymal cells
Leukaemias - bone marrow cells
Lymphomas - lymphocytes
Neuroblastomas - neural cells
Gliomas - glial cells
Function of nucleus
Contains genetic information of the cell and controls activity of the cell
Function of nucleolus
Contains genes for rRNA, site of synthesis for ribosomal subunits
Function and shape of rough ER
Protein synthesis, flattened sheets with ribosomes studded on OUTER face.
Function and shape of smooth ER
Lipid metabolism and synthesis. Tubular, no ribosomes.
Function and shape of Golgi apparatus
Modify, sort, package macromolecules for secretion of delivery to other organelles. Stacked, membrane bound sacs.
Examples of intracellular membranes
Nuclear envelope, ER, golgi apparatus.
Function of mitochondria
Aerobic glucose metabolism, ATP production
Function of ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis, two subunits.
Function of peroxisomes
Contain and release enzymes involved in lipid and oxygen metabolism (oxidases, catalase, peroxidases)
List cell organelles
Cytoskeleton components (descending order of thickness)
Features of microtubules
- Polymers of alpha and beta tubular heterodimers
- 20nm thick
- Involved in cell shape
- Act as "tracks" for organelle and cytoplasmic component movement
- Structural and motor components of cilia/flagellae
- Form mitotic spindle
Features of Intermediate filaments
- Group of polymers of filamentous proteins
- Form rope-like structures
- 10-15nm thick
- Give mechanical strength to cell
- Different types of cell have different IFs
- Nuclear lamins are IFs that form a network on the inside of the nuclear envelope to stabilise it.
Features of Microfilaments
- Polymers of actin
- Associate with adhesion belts in epithelia and endothelia
- 5-9nm thick
- Involved in cell shape and movement
- Accessory proteins (myosin) act with actin to control cell movement.
Types of cells and their Intermediate filaments
Epithelial cells - Cytokeratins
Mesenchymal cells - Vimentin
Neurones - Neurofilament protein
Muscle cells - Desmin
Definition of a tissue
A group or groups of cells whose type, organisation and architecture are integral to its function.