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MCD - Cellular Organisation of Tissues > Cell biology of tissues > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell biology of tissues Deck (24)
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1

Types of human cells

Epithelial cells
Mesenchymal cells
Contractile tissue
Haematopoietic cells
Neural cells

2

Examples of epithelial cells

Layers of cells lining organs and forming boundaries between tissue and compartments

3

Examples of mesenchymal cells

Cells of the connective tissue, fibroblasts, chondrocytes, osteocytes

4

Examples of contractile tissues

Skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle

5

Examples of haematopoietic cells

Blood cells, immune cells, bone marrow progenitor cells

6

Examples of neural cells

Neurones, glial cells

7

Cell type affected in cancers

Carcinomas - epithelial cells
Sarcomas - mesenchymal cells
Leukaemias - bone marrow cells
Lymphomas - lymphocytes
Neuroblastomas - neural cells
Gliomas - glial cells

8

Function of nucleus

Contains genetic information of the cell and controls activity of the cell

9

Function of nucleolus

Contains genes for rRNA, site of synthesis for ribosomal subunits

10

Function and shape of rough ER

Protein synthesis, flattened sheets with ribosomes studded on OUTER face.

11

Function and shape of smooth ER

Lipid metabolism and synthesis. Tubular, no ribosomes.

12

Function and shape of Golgi apparatus

Modify, sort, package macromolecules for secretion of delivery to other organelles. Stacked, membrane bound sacs.

13

Examples of intracellular membranes

Nuclear envelope, ER, golgi apparatus.

14

Function of mitochondria

Aerobic glucose metabolism, ATP production

15

Function of ribosomes

Site of protein synthesis, two subunits.

16

Function of peroxisomes

Contain and release enzymes involved in lipid and oxygen metabolism (oxidases, catalase, peroxidases)

17

List cell organelles

Nucleus
Nucleolus
Rough ER
Smooth ER
Golgi app.
Intracellular membranes
Mitochondria
Ribosomes
Peroxisomes

18

Cytoskeleton components (descending order of thickness)

Microtubules
Intermediate filaments
Microfilaments

19

Features of microtubules

- Polymers of alpha and beta tubular heterodimers
- 20nm thick
- Involved in cell shape
- Act as "tracks" for organelle and cytoplasmic component movement
- Structural and motor components of cilia/flagellae
- Form mitotic spindle

20

Features of Intermediate filaments

- Group of polymers of filamentous proteins
- Form rope-like structures
- 10-15nm thick
- Give mechanical strength to cell
- Different types of cell have different IFs
- Nuclear lamins are IFs that form a network on the inside of the nuclear envelope to stabilise it.

21

Features of Microfilaments

- Polymers of actin
- Associate with adhesion belts in epithelia and endothelia
- 5-9nm thick
- Involved in cell shape and movement
- Accessory proteins (myosin) act with actin to control cell movement.

22

Types of cells and their Intermediate filaments

Epithelial cells - Cytokeratins
Mesenchymal cells - Vimentin
Neurones - Neurofilament protein
Muscle cells - Desmin

23

Definition of a tissue

A group or groups of cells whose type, organisation and architecture are integral to its function.

24

Components of tissues

Cells
Extracellular matrix
Extracellular fluid