Cell- Chapter 3A Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell- Chapter 3A Deck (31):
0

The process of gradual specialization of cells is called

Differentiation

1

What is the fluid inside and outside the cell called and what is it separated by?

Fluid inside is intracellular fluid
Outside is extra cellular fluid
And they are separated by a cells plasma membrane

2

What is cytoplasm divided into

1. Organelles
2. Cytosol

3

What is a peroxisome

Vesicles with degradative enzymes that neutralize toxic compounds

4

What is a lysosome

Vesicles containing digestive enzymes that break down damaged organelles

5

What are microvilli

Membrane extensions that increase absorption

6

What does the Golgi apparatus do

Stores and packages products

7

What is the nucleus of a cell

Controls all cellular activities
Stores and processes genetic info

8

What is the endoplasmic reticulum

Sheets and channels within cell that stores and transports

9

What is the difference between the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and the rough

Smooth has no attached ribosomes and the rough does

10

What are ribosomes and what are the differences between free and attached

Ribosomes synthesize proteins they can be attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum or move freely in the cytoplasm

11

What are mitochondrion

Metabolic enzymes that produce 95% of cellular ATP

12

Describe the cytoskeleton of a cell

Fine filaments that strengthens and supports the cell. Moves materials within cell

13

What is the plasma membrane of a cell

Selectively permeable barrier that's composed of a phospholipid bilayer, proteins and glycocalyx

14

Cholesterol has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions making it ___________

Amphipathic

15

What is an integral protein

A protein attached to cell membrane. Cannot be removed

16

What are peripheral proteins

Attached to outer surface of membrane and can easily be removed

17

What is glycocalyx

Superficial carbohydrate Layer on membrane. Lubricates cell and binds to extra cellular structures

18

3 functions of plasma membrane

1. Physical isolation
2. Exchange with external environment
3. Structural support

19

Name the 3 components of the cytoskeleton from smallest to biggest

1. Microfilaments
2. Intermediate filaments
3. Microtubules

20

What is a centrosome

A group of 2 centrioles

21

What is a centriole

Composed of microtubules that moves DNA during cell division

22

What is the "trans face"

Side of the Golgi apparatus where products are shipped

23

What organelle fuses with another organelle to digest its contents

Lysosomes

24

What is autolysis

Destruction of cells by its own enzymes

25

What is the continuous movement and exchange of materials between organelles using vesicles ?

Membrane flow

26

More energy needed = more _____ in cells

Mitochondria

27

What are the 4 steps of ATP production

1. Glycolysis
2. Citric acid cycle
3. ADP ---> ATP
4. ATP leaves mitochondria

28

What is aerobic metabolism

ATP production that requires oxygen. About 95% of ATP produced this way

29

What is anaerobic metabolism

ATP production without the presence of oxygen

30

Why do red blood cell only live for 120 days

The lack a nucleus