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Advanced Pathophysiology > Cell Division > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Division Deck (34)
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1

The movement of a substance from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration, against a concentration gradient

active transport

2

An abnormal separation during cell division leading to too many or too few chromosomes.

aneuploidy

3

New blood vessels to meet the needs of a growing tumor

angiogenesis

4

Nitrogen bases (steps) of the nucleotide are either purine (adenine and guanine) or pyrimidine (thymine and cytosine)

base pair

5

Each of the separate identical copies created when chromosome replicates; they attach to each other through a centromere

chromatid

6

DNA is combines a wrapped around the histone proteins

chromatin

7

When aneuploidy only occurs in some of the body cells of the offspring, but others are normal. It can occur in many disorders such as Turners, Klinefelter, and Down Syndrome

Chromosomal mosaicism

8

A nucleotide in DNA

chromosomes

9

The movement of solutes (particles dissolved in a solvent ) from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration

Diffusion

10

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA

11

Addition of a methyl group to DNA cytosine, which causes a gene to become inactive or silent, leading to inhibition of transcription

DNA methylation

12

The act of bringing a substance into a cell

endocytosis

13

Determinant of gene expression (how the genes read). These changes can determine whether a gene is on or off

epigenetic

14

The release of materials from a cell, usually assistance of a vesicle

exocytosis

15

The movement of substances from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration with the assistance of a carrier molecule

facilitated diffusion

16

Segments of DNA that serve as a template of protein synthesis

genes

17

Trait passed to offspring via chromosomes, or genes

genetic

18

The complete set of DNA and genes

genome

19

Transmitted genetic information that forms the blueprint

genotype

20

Proteins that basically are spools that DNA wraps itself around

histones

21

Term that describes autosomal dominant disorders and less commonly, autosomal recessive disorders that have a genotype, but the features of the disorder may never stop

incompetent penetrance

22

Exposure of a normal cell to an environmental substance or event that causes DNA damage or mutation

initiation

23

A representation of a person's individual set of chromosomes

karyotype

24

A spreading of cancer within the body

metastasis

25

Noncoding proteins who's function is decreasing mRNA translation or stability, essentially functioning as regulators. There are many types; some have oncogenic effect, leading to cancer

microRNA

26

Type of stem cell that can only make cells from their same germ layer

multipotent

27

A double helix strand made of a sugar molecule ad phosphate attached to a nitrogen containing base

nucleotide

28

The movement of water or another solvent across the cellular membrane from an area of low solute to an area of high solute concentration

osmosis

29

The outward physical expression of genes such as eye color

phenotype

30

Type of stem cell that can develop into any kind of cell and ultimately will develop into the over 200 specialized cells of the adult human

pluripotent