Cell Growth and Division Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Science > Cell Growth and Division Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Growth and Division Vocabulary Deck (27):
1

-blast-

sprout, germ, bud

2

-cyst

sac, puch, bladder

3

multi-

many

4

-potent

powerful, able to do

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toti-

entirely

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mitosis

A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.

7

cytokinesis

The cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.

8

chromatid

Each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.

9

centromere

The point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.

10

Interphase

The resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.

11

Cell cycle

The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication) that produces two daughter cells.

12

Prophase

The first stage of cell division, before metaphase, during which the chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope disappears. The first prophase of meiosis includes the reduction division.

13

centriole

A minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.

14

spindle

Cell Biology. a spindle-shaped structure, composed of microtubules, that forms near the cell nucleus during mitosis or meiosis and, as it divides, draws the chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell.

15

Metaphase

The second stage of cell division, between prophase and anaphase, during which the chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibers.

16

Anaphase

The stage of meiotic or mitotic cell division in which the chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle.

17

Telophase

The final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.

18

Internal regulators

An internal regulator is a special protein that permits the cell cycle to continue only when certain conditions have been met inside the cell.

19

External regulators

External regulators are a type of genetic factor that influences cell functions.

20

Apoptosis

The death of cells that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.

21

Cancer

The disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body.

22

Differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.

23

Stem cells

An undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism that is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type, and from which certain other kinds of cell arise by differentiation.

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Pluripotent

(of an immature or stem cell) capable of giving rise to several different cell types.

25

Multipotent

Having the ability to differentiate to a limited number of cell fates or into closely related family of cells.

26

Embryonic stem cells

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they are able to grow (i.e. differentiate) into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm.

27

Adult stem cells

Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Also known as somatic stem cells, they can be found in children, as well as adults.