Flashcards in Matter Vocabulary Deck (18):
A substance is matter which has a specific composition and specific properties. Every pure element is a substance. Every pure compound is a substance. Examples of substances: Iron is an element and hence is also a substance.
physical and chemical properties. Examples of physical properties are: color, smell, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, infra-red spectrum, attraction (paramagnetic) or repulsion (diamagnetic) to magnets, opacity, viscosity and density.
Definition of Mixture. Any substance that has uniform and unchanging composition is considered to be pure. Examples of pure substances include elements. A mixture is a combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties.
a property or characteristic of a substance that is observed during a reaction in which the chemical composition or identity of the substance is changed: Combustibility is an important chemical property to consider when choosing building materials.
Extensive properties, such as mass and volume, depend on the amount of matter being measured. Intensive properties, such as density and color, do not depend on the amount of the substance present. Physical properties can be measured without changing a substance's chemical identity.
An intensive property is a bulk property, meaning that it is a physical property of a system that does not depend on the system size or the amount of material in the system. Examples of intensive properties include temperature, refractive index, density, and hardness of an object.
state of matter characterized by particles arranged such that their shape and volume are relatively stable. The constituents of a solid tend to be packed together much closer than the particles in a gas or liquid.
Definition of Liquid. An amorphous (non-crystalline) form of matter between a gas and a solid that has a definite volume, but no definite shape. Definition for Liquid Aerosol :Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas.
noble gas. Any of the elements in Group O of the periodic table, including helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon, which are monatomic and with limited exceptions chemically inert. Also called inert gas. Any of the six gases helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon.
Any change that occurs without altering the chemical composition of a substance is a physical change. Physical changes can include changing the color, shape, state of matter, or volume of a substance.
Chemical change is any change that results in the formation of new chemical substances. At the molecular level, chemical change involves making or breaking of bonds between atoms. These changes are chemical: iron rusting (iron oxide forms)
Definition of Homogeneous Mixture: A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout. For example, air is a homogeneous mixture of gases. A teaspoonful of table salt stirred into a glass of water also makes a homogeneous mixture.
A heterogeneous mixture is made of different substances that remain physically separate. Heterogeneous mixtures always have more than one phase (regions with uniform composition and properties). A mixture of sand and sugar is a heterogeneous mixture.
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent.
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Filtration is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass. The fluid that passes through is called the filtrate.
Distillation is used to purify a compound by separating it from a non-volatile or less-volatile material. When different compounds in a mixture have different boiling points, they separate into individual components when the mixture is carefully distilled.
Crystallization is also a chemical solid–liquid separation technique, in which mass transfer of a solute from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase occurs. In chemical engineering crystallization occurs in a crystallizer.