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Flashcards in Cell Injury Deck (12)
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1

These react with proteins, lipids, and carbs thereby damaging cell membranes, inactivating enzymes, and damaging nucleus acids that make up DNA.

Free radicals

2

ROS are normal products of mitochondrial respiration and energy metabolism, and are typically removed by

Cellular antioxidant systems

3

A condition that occurs when the generation of ROS exceeds the ability of the body to neutralize and eliminate ROS.

Oxidative stress

4

Can lead to oxidation of cell components, activation of signal transduction pathways, DNA damage, and changes in gene expression.

Oxidative stress

5

These are natural and synthetic molecules that inhibit the reactions of ROS with biological structures or that prevent the uncontrolled formation of ROS.

Antioxidants

6

Mutations in the gene for SOD are associated with

ALS

7

This deprives the cell of oxygen and interiors oxidative metabolism and the generation of ATP.

Hypoxia

8

The actual time necessary to produce irreversible cell damage depends on

The degree of oxygen deprivation and the metabolic needs of the cell.

9

This is characterized by impaired oxygen delivery and impaired removal of metabolic end products such as lactic acid.

Ischemia

10

This causes oxygen tension in the cell to fall, oxidative metabolism ceases, cell reverts to anaerobic metabolism using its limited glycogen stores in an attempt to maintain cells vital functions. Cell ph falls bc lactic acidosis increases and the low ph alters cell membranes and causes chromatin to clump.

Hypoxia

11

An important effect of reduced ATP d/t hypoxia is

An acute swelling caused by failure of the energy dependent sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphate membrane pump, which extrudes sodium from and returns potassium to the cell. With impaired function of this pump, intracellular potassium decrease and sodium and water accumulate in the cell.

12

Ischemia and certain toxins lead to

An increase in cytosolic calcium bc of the increase influx of calcium across the cell membrane and the release of calcium from intracellular stores.