Cell Organelles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell Organelles Deck (23):
1

Cells that contain a nuclei

Eukaryotes

2

Cells that do not contain a nuclei

Prokaryotes

3

Portion of the cell outside the nucleus
-allows for diffusion of nutrients and wastes

Cytoplasm

4

What is the nuclear envelope?

-composed of two membranes
- surrounds the nucleus
-allows material to move in and out of the nucleus

5

What is chromatin?

-consists of DNA bound to protein
-found in the nucleus
-spread around the nucleus but condenses to form chromosomes when the cell splits
-long strands of DNA float within the nucleus

6

What are chromosomes?

-distinct threadlike structures contain genetic information passed through the generations

7

What is the nucleolus?

-assembly of ribosomes begin

8

What are ribosomes?

-proteins are assembled on ribosomes
-small pieces of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm
-use copy of DNA to build protein

9

What is the endoplasmic reticulum?

-site where lipid componentes of the cell membrane are assembled along with other proteins exported from the cell
-rough ER involved in the synthesis of proteins
-when proteins are ready for cellular export they are built on the rough ER
-smooth ER has enzymes which preform specialized tasks

10

What is the Golgi Apparatus?

-job is to sort, modify and package proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage or secretion

11

What are lysosomes?

-small organelles filled with enzymes
-digestion, breakdown of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins
-responsible for breaking down organelles
-"clean up crew"

12

What is the vacuole?

-storage

13

What is the mitochondria?

Organelles that convert chemical energy into compounds more convenient for the cell
-part of cellular respiration

14

What are chloroplasts?

Organelles that capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy through photosynthesis

15

What is the cytoskeleton?

-found in eukaryotic cells
-network of protein filaments that help the cell maintain shape
-involved in movement

16

What are centrioles?

-located near the nucleus and help organize cell division

17

What is the cell membrane?

-cell surrounded by a thin and flexible barrier
-sometimes called the plasma membrane
-regulates what enters and leaves the cell and provides support and protection
-cannot control gases or water

18

What is the cell wall?

-a strong supporting layer around the membrane

19

What is the cytoskeleton?

Connects, provides support and helps transport organelles

20

What is the nucleus?

-control centre for the cell

21

What is DNA

Contains plans for construction of most of the chemicals

22

What is the flagellum?

A whip-like tail that helps the cell move

23

What are cilia?

Tiny hairs that work together to help move the cell