Cell Organelles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell Organelles Deck (16):
1

chloroplast

The site of photosynthesis in eukaryotic plant cells = chlorophyll absorbs light energy and uses it to synthesize glucose
It is surrounded by a double membrane
It has stacks of membranes inside it called thylakoid membranes where the chlorophyll is found

2

mitochondrion

the site of aerobic respiration in an eukaryotic cell, which produces ATP
Oval shaped with a double membrane,
The inner membrane is folded into structures called cristae
The inner fluid component is called the matrix and contains enzymes involved in respiration

3

Golgi apparatus and vesicles

A stack of fluid filled membrane bound stacks
Processes and packages polypeptides for excytosis
Processes lipids
Forms lyosomes
Vesicles transport processed proteins and lipids to the cell surface membrane
Vesicles are found around the edges of the sacs

4

permanent vacuole

this is a structure found in plant cells. It helps to maintain pressure inside the cell to keep the cell turgid. It is also the site of isolation of unwanted chemicals inside the cell.

5

nucleus

A large organelle made up of the nuclear envelope (a double membrane with many nuclear pores), genetic material and one or more nucleoli
Controls the cells activities by controlling the transcription of DNA to RNA
the nuclear pores allow RNA to pass out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm for translation at the ribosomes

6

nucleolus

a structure found in the nucleus and is the site of production of ribosomes

7

Cell wall

A structure made of cellulose in plant and algal cells and chitin in fungal cells that surrounds cells
Allows the cell to become turgid without bursting and maintain their shape
Allows the cell to withstand pressure changes

8

lysosome

a type of Golgi vesicle containing hydrolytic enzymes called lysozymes, which break down worn out cell organelles or invading cells
It has a membrane made up of phospholipids which keeps the enzymes separate from the other contents of the cell

9

cell surface membrane

A bilayer of lipids (phospholipids) with proteins embedded in it some lipids and proteins have carbohydrates attached o them
It regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell
It also has receptor molecules on the surface which are responsible or cell recognition of chemicals e.g. hormones

10

cytoplasm

gel-like fluid where cell organelles are found

11

nuclear pore

small gaps in the nuclear membrane that allow ribosomes, RNA and nucleotides to pass in and out of the nucleus

12

chromatin

this is a complex of macromolecules found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells consisting of DNA, protein and RNA

13

ribosomes

They exist in two forms: 70S in prokaryotic cells and 80S in eukaryotic cells
This is where amino acids are assembled to form proteins (protein synthesis by translating the mRNA that was transcribed in the nucleus)
They are very small organelles that float free in the cytoplasm or are attached to the RER
They are made up of a small and large sub-unit made of proteins and ribosonal RNA (rRNA)
They aren't membrane bound

14

rough endoplasmic reticulum

A system of passageways enclosing a fluid illed space
Provides a network of membranes for the transport of polypeptides
The surface is covered in ribosomes
It is the main site of protein synthesis due to the presence of ribosomes

15

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

A system of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space
It looks like the RER but there are no ribosomes attached to it's surface.
It is the site of synthesis and processing of lipids.

16

plasmodesmata

connects cells in plants