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Flashcards in Cell Structure Deck (22)
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1

What is cell biology?

The exploration and study of life, at the level of the cell and how those parts function at a molecular level.

2

What is a cell?

The structural and functional unit of all living organisms, and is often called the building block of life

3

What are the 2 main families of cells?

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic

4

What are the percentages of cell components?

-made up 90% of water
-the rest:
50% is protein
15% carbohydrate
15% nucleic acid
10% lipid
10% other

5

What are the ways of analysing cells?

-cell culture
-light microscopy
-fluorescent microscopy
-electron microscopy

6

Name the cells used as experimental models

-E.coli
-yeast
-dictyostelium
-nematode worm
-drosphophila

7

How do light microscopes work?

Fluorescence molecules absorb light at one wavelength and emit it at another.
Powerful illuminating source filtered before and after the specimen.

8

What is the function of the plasma membrane?

Serves as a boundary between the cell and its external environment.
-- Allows materials to pass in and out of the cell.

9

What is the function of the nucleus?

Regulates cell function.
Surrounded by a double-layered membrane (nuclear envelope) with large pores that allow materials to pass in and out of the nucleus.
Contains chromatin – long tangles of DNA.

10

What is the function of nucleolus?

Found in the nucleus and responsible for ribosome production. Ribosomes are the sites of protein production.

11

What is the cytoplasm?

Jelly like material that surrounds the organelles

12

What is the 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum and what are their functions?

Folded membrane that acts as the cells delivery system
-Smooth E.R contains enzymes for lipid synthesis
-Rough E.R is studded with ribosomes for protein synthesis

13

What is the Golgi apparatus and what is the function?

A series of flattened sacs where newly made lipids and proteins from the E.R are repackaged and shipped to the plasma membrane

14

What are peroxisomes?

Membrane bound packets of oxidative enzymes

15

What are the vacuoles?

A sac of fluid surrounded by a membrane used to store food, fluid, or waste products

16

What are lysosomes?

-contain a digestive enzymes
-can fuse with vacuoles digest food, or can digest worn cells parts

17

What is the function of mitochondria?

-produce the energy for the cell
-highly folded inner membrane (cristae)
-fatty acid metabolism
-urea cycle
-biosynthesis of haemoglobin

18

What is the cytoskeleton?

A network of thin, fibrous materials that act as a scaffold and support the organelles :
microtubules- hollow filaments of protein
microfilaments- solid filaments of protein

19

What is cilia?

-short , numerous , hair-like projections from the plasma membrane
- move with a coordinated beating action

20

What are the flagella?

Longer , less numerous projections from the plasma membrane
-move with a whip-like action

21

What are the centrioles ?

-made of protein -tubulin
-play a role in the splitting of the cell into two cells by replicating then separating
-found in animal and fungi cells

22

What is a symbiotic relationship and what cell shows this?

A cell within a cell - mitochondria