Cell Structure And Cell Function Flashcards Preview

Biology Cumulative Exam Study Guide > Cell Structure And Cell Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Structure And Cell Function Deck (43):
0

Robert Hooke

Looked at slices of cork
Deceived as chamber "cells"

1

Anton Von Leeuhwenhoek

Observed unicellular organisms in pond water for the first time

2

Cell theory

All living things are composed of cells
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things
New cells are produced from existing cells

3

Schleiden

All plants are composed of cells

4

Schwann

All animals are composed of cells

5

Difference between animal and plant cells

Plant cells have cell walls, central vacuoles, and chloroplasts

Animals have small vacuoles and no cell walls or chloroplasts

6

Nucleus

Controls most cellular processes
Contains nearly all of cell's DNA

7

Ribosomes

Assemble proteins
Free floating or attached to ER

8

Rough ER

Ribosomes on surface
Protein synthesis
That are chemically modified then released

9

Smooth ER

No ribosomes
Synthesis of membrane lipids (smooth)
Detoxification of drugs

10

Golgi apparatus

Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the ER
Products stored or exported out cell

11

Lysosomes

Contain enzymes that digest lipids, carbs, and proteins
Monomers reused by cell

12

Peroxisome

Contain enzymes that digest toxic substances

13

Cytoskeleton

A network of protein filaments(micro tubules and micro filaments) that help the cell move and maintain its shape

14

Mitochondria

Convert chemical energy in to usable ATP
Site of cellular respiration
Inherited from mother

15

Vacuoles

Stores water, salts, proteins, and carbs
Large in plants for support

16

Vesicles

Small membrane surrounded structures used to transport molecules

17

Chloroplasts

Create and store usable energy through process of photosynthesis

18

Cell wall

Provides cell with rigid structure
Made of cellulose and is porous

19

Selectively permeable membrane

Only certain particles can diffuse

20

What limits a cell's size?

Surface area to volume ratio
Nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio
Fragility of cell
Mechanical structure

21

Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cells
(Pro)

Pro:
No nucleus-nucleoid contains DNA
Few organelles
Cell membrane
Cell wall
Ribosomes
Capsule
Cytoplasm
Pilli, cilia, and flagellum
Small in size

22

Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cells
(Eu)

Nucleus
Many organelles
Large in size
Multicellular or unicellular

23

Stem cells

Undifferentiated calls that have the potential to become any type of specialized cell

24

Types of stem cells

Sperm-fertilizes egg, moving flagellum
Red blood cell-carries oxygen from lungs to tissues
White blood cells-immune system helps fight infection
Muscle cells- muscle movement lots of mitochondria
Nerve cells- send messages throughout body parts to brain long cells
Xylem- transports water and minerals one way movement
Phloem- transports sugar two way movement

25

Stage and stage clip

Flat plate where the slides are placed for observation clips on

26

Diaphragm

A five hole disc placed under the stage

27

Objective

Lens closest to the object

28

Eyepiece

Lens at the top of the microscope
You look into it

29

Coarse and fine adjustment

C: the rough focus knob
F: used to fine tune the focus

30

Light source

A lightbulb that provides the light for viewing the image

31

Total magnification

Eyepiece times objective

32

You move slide one way (left) which way will it move through eyepiece?

Moves opposite way (right)
Image is rotated 180degrees

33

Advantages of using electron microscope over light microscope

Powerful magnification
Many applications
Possible to see three dimensional external shape
Higher resolution

34

Coccus

Circular bacteria

35

Bacillus

Rod shaped bacteria

36

Spirilla

Spiral shaped bacteria

37

Amoebas

Pseudopod
Contractile vacuole

38

Paramecium

Cilia
Contractile vacuole
Two nuclei: macro nucleus and micro nucleus(metabolism and reproduction)

39

Euglena

Contractile vacuoles
flagellum
Chloroplast
Eyespot

40

Pseudopod

False foot for movement

41

Contractile vacuole

For pumping water out when in a hypotonic environment

42

Eyespot

For detecting light