Cell Test Review: (all decks combined) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell Test Review: (all decks combined) Deck (111):
1

Which phase is known as the middle phase?

metaphase

2

Describe the activity of the centrioles during prophase

  • Migrate to opposite poles of the cell.
  • grow spindle fibers

3

Came up with the word cell

Robert Hooke

4

Two types of endocytosis

phagocytosis

pinocytosis

5

What returns during telophase?

  • Nuclei
  • Nucleoli

6

Three types of  transport

Passive Transport

Active Transport

Movement of Macromolecules

7

attach to glycoproteins

Peripheral proteins

8

During which phase of the cell cycle does the nucleus divide into two?

M phase or mitosis

9

Microscope that coats the speciman with a metal.  Electrons bounce off the speciman and produce and image

Scanning electron microscope

10

During which phase of the cell cycle does the cell split into two daughter cells?

C phase or cytokinesis

11

Diffusion through an integral protein from high to low concentration.

Facilitated diffusion

12

What are the products of lactic acid fermentation?

  • Lactic acid
  • 2 NAD+

13

During passive transport how do molecules move?

  • From high to low concentration
  • Down the conentration gradient.  

14

How do chromosomes line up during metaphse?

In a single file line

15

What is the cytoplasm of the mitochondria called?

Matrix

16

Category of transport that does not require energy from the cell

Passive transport

17

What type of cells go through the cell cycle?

Somatic cell

or 

diploid cells

18

During which phase of mitosis do the DNA molecules form chromosomes?

Prophase

19

Loss of osmotic pressure in an animal cell

crenation

20

Exploding of an animal cell

Lysing

21

Two types of electron microscopes

Scanning

and 

Transmission 

Electron Microscopes

22

Which organelle do spindle fibers grow out of?

centrioles

23

Which form of DNA is condensed?

Chromosome

24

Found inside of the nucleus.  They synthesize the ribosomes

nucleolus

25

Organelles only in animal cells

Lysosomes

Cilia and Flagella

Cytoskeleton

26

Movement of water from high to low concentrations.

Osmosis

27

During osmosis water moves from a _______solution to a ___________ solution.  

hypotonic to hypertonic

 

(TO THE HYPER!)

28

Concluded that all cells come from preexisting cells

Rudolf Virchow

29

Which products of glycolysis move on to the Krebs cycle?

Pyruvic acid

30

Part of the phospholipid that doesn't like the solvent in the cytoplasm or the environment

Fatty Acid Tails

31

_______ releases large products or waste molecules out  of the cell.  

Exocytosis

32

Type of solution that is more concentrated than the other solution.

hypertonic solution

33

During which phase of mitosis does DNA turn into the chromatin form?

Telophase

34

Which form of DNA is long and thin?

Chromatin

35

carbohydrates that attach to hydrophillic heads in the membrane

glycolipids

36

Which molecules react with pyruvic acid during fermentation?

2 NADH

37

Type of solution that has more solute and less solvent

hypertonic

38

Type of solution that is more dilute than the other solution.

hypotonic solution

39

Component of cell walls

Cellulose

40

Concluded that all animals are made up of cells

Theodore Schwann

41

Where does the Krebs Cycle take place?

Matrix of the mitochondria

42

What are the products of alchoholic fermentation?

  • ethyl alcohol
  • 2 NAD+
  • 2 carbon dioxides

43

What is the human diploid number?

2n=46

44

What moves the chromosomes to the equator during metaphase?

spindle fibers

45

What happens to the DNA during telophase?

Uncondenses/unwinds back into the chromatin long and thin form?  

46

During anaphase, when the sister chromatids detach and move to opposite poles of the cell, what are the DNA molecules now called?  

daughter chromomsomes

47

Gates within the cell membrane

Integral proteins

48

Type of microscope that gives us an external 3D view of a specimen

Scanning electron microsope

49

Type of microscope that can view a living organism

Light microscope

50

Concluded that all plants are made up of cells

Matthias Schleiden

51

During cellular respiration, this organelle breaks down large carbohydrate molecules into individual glucose molecules.

Lysosome

52

Makes phospholipids for the cell membrane

smooth ER

53

First to look at protozoa (moving living organisms) in pond water

Anton Van Leewenhooke

54

What disappears during prophase of mitosis?

Nucleus

and 

nucleolus

55

Helps to move around organelles inside the cell as well as products fromt he ER's to the Golgi bodies.

Cytoskeleton

56

Type of micoscope we use in the classroom

light microscope

57

Solid food and bacteria enter cells through 

phagocytosis

58

What splits at  the beginning of anaphase?

centromeres

59

Which products of Krebs Cycle move on to the ETC

8 NADH

2 FADH2

60

What are the cells called at the conclusion of cytokinesis?

Daughter cells

61

During which phase of aerobic respiration is the water produced?

ETC

62

Increase in osmotic pressure in an plant cell leads to the cell becoming ____

turgid

63

Act as name tags for the cell

Glycolipids 

and 

Glycoproteins

64

What are the folds of the inner membrane called?

cristae

65

Which type of fermentation do yeast go through?

alcoholic fermentation

66

What are the three main phases of the cell cycle? 

  • Interphase
  • M phase (mitosis)
  • C phase (cytokinesis)

67

Type of transport that takes in large molecules into the cell...so large they can't fit through the phospholipids or the integral proteins.

endocytosis

68

Type of passive transport involves the movement of gases across the membrane from high to low concentrations

diffusion

69

Loss of osmotic pressure in a plant cell

plasmolysis

70

During which phase of interphase does the cell enlarge?

G1

71

Microscope that thinnly slices the speciman.  Electrons are then forced through the speciman. The rate at which the electrons are collected on the other side is used to put together an image

Transmission electron microscope

72

What are the three phases of aerobic Cellular Respiration?

  • Glycolysis
  • Kreb's Cycle
  • Electron Transport Chain

73

Three main molecules that make up a cell membrane

Phospholipids

Proteins

Carbohydrates

74

Helps make the cells mobile

cilia and flagella

75

Two components of a solution

Solvent (water)

Solute (dissolved particles)

76

Type of cell that bacteria are classified as

prokaryotic cell

77

Receives the products of the ER's and ships them to the membrane for export.

Golgi apparatus

78

Where does the electron transport take place?

cristae of the mitochondria

(inner membrane folds)

79

Hormones and secretions enter a cell through...

pinocytosis

80

During which phase of cellular respiration is the carbon dioxide produced?

Krebs Cycle

81

Type of transport that requires the use of  ATP by the cell

Active Transport

82

What product from fermentation drives the glycolysis process?

  • 2 NAD+

83

Where does glycolysis take place?

cytoplasm of the cell

84

What is the center of the cell also known as?

  • Equator
  • Equatorial plate
  • Metaphase plate

85

Microscope that gives us an internal up-close view of a speciman

Transmission Electron Microscope

86

Which products of glycolysis move on to the electron transport chain?

2 NADH molecules

87

What are the reactants for cellular respiration? 

  • glucose
  • 6 oxygen molecules
     

88

Type of cell that lacks a nucleus

prokaryotic cell

89

What does the DNA coil around to form a sister chromatid?

histone proteins

90

During which phase of interphase does the DNA get copied?

S phase

91

Type of cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles

eukaryotic cells

92

During which phase of interphase are the organelles doubled?

G2 phase

93

What are the products of cellular respiration?

  • 6 Carbon dioxides
  • 6 waters
  • 36 ATP

94

What is the cell called at the beginning of the cell cycle?

Parent Cell

95

Three types of passive transport

  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Facilitated Diffusion

96

Contains the genetic material of the cell

nucleus

97

Type of solution that has the same concentration of solute as the other solution

isotonic

98

Organelles only found in plant cells

Chloroplasts

Central Vacuole

Cell Wall

99

What is the chemical formula for glucose?

C6H12O6

100

Type of solution that has more solvent and less solute

hypotonic

101

Which phase is also known as the away phase?

Anaphase

102

Part of the phospholipid that faces the cytoplasm or the environment

Hydrophillic phospholipid head

103

Organisms that are only one cell in size are known as....

unicellular

104

Regulates the movement of food into the cell and waste out of the cell

Cell membrane

105

Which phase of mitosis takes the longest and why?

Prophase because the DNA has to condense into the chromosome form.

106

List how much ATP is synthesized in each of the three phases of aerobic respiration.

  • Glycolysis: net gain of 2
  • Krebs Cycle: 2
  • ETC: 32

107

Organism this is made up of more than one cell is called?

multicellular

108

Makes proteins for the membrane or for export to other cells

Rough ER

109

Alternate names for cell membrane

Selectively permeable membrane

Lipid bilayer

Semipermeable membrane

Fluid Mosaic Model

110

What is each half of a chromosome called?

sister chromatid

111

What are the three phases of interphase?

  • G1
  • S
  • G2