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Biology Units 1 & 2 Study > Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells Deck (39)
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1
Q

What are the three parts of the “cell theory”?

A
  • Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of life
  • All cells come from pre-existing cells
  • All living organisms are made up of one kr more cells
2
Q

Differences and similarities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

A

PROKARYOTIC
- DNA floats freely
- No membrane-bound organelles
- Small and simple
- Bacteria
- Unicellular
BOTH
- Cell membrane and/or cell wall
- Cytoplasm
- Ribosomes
EUKARYOTIC
- DNA in nucleus
- Membrane-bound organelles
- Large and complex
- Plants and animals
- Multicellular

3
Q

What are the common properties of all cells?

A
  • Have a cell membrane and/or wall
  • Have a cytoplasm
  • Have ribosomes
  • Have DNA
4
Q

Nucleus Function

A

Contains most of the cells genetic material, which regulates the activities of the cell

5
Q

Is the Nucleus found in animals, plants or both?

A

Both

6
Q

Ribosome Function

A

Synthesis of proteins

7
Q

Are ribosomes found in animals, plants or both?

A

Both

8
Q

Function of Rough ER

A

Folding and modification of proteins

9
Q

Function of Smooth ER

A

Synthesis and modification of lipids

10
Q

Are smooth and rough ER found in animals, plants or both?

A

Both

11
Q

What does ER stand for?

A

Endoplasmic Reticulum

12
Q

Function of Cytoplasm

A

Site of cellular activities and chemical reactions

13
Q

Is cytoplasm found in animals, plants or both?

A

Both

14
Q

What is the liquid found in the cytoplasm called?

A

Cytosol

15
Q

What is cytosol?

A

The liquid found in the cytoplasm

16
Q

Where is ER located?

A

Around the nucleus

17
Q

Function of vacuole

A

Store water, minerals and ions, give plant cells rigid shapes

18
Q

Are vacuoles for in animals, plants or both?

A

Both but, in plants they are larger and have a different function

19
Q

Function of lysosome

A

Break down old cells and organelles

20
Q

Are lysosomes found in animals, plants or both?

A

Both

21
Q

Where are lysosomes formed?

A

Golgi Apparatus

22
Q

Function of Golgi Apparatus

A

Packaging and transport of molecules through cells in vesticles

23
Q

Are golgi apparatus found in animals, plants or both?

A

Both

24
Q

Function of the cell membrance

A

Creates a barrier around the cell to control what enters and exits the cell

25
Q

Is the cell membrane found in animals, plants or both?

A

Both

26
Q

Function of the cell wall

A

To protect the cell, maintain cell shape and prevent excessive water uptake

27
Q

Is the cell wall found in animals, plants or both?

A

Plants

28
Q

Function of mitochondria

A

The site of cellular respiration (makes energy)

29
Q

Are mitochondria in animals, plants or both?

A

Both

30
Q

Function of chloroplast

A

Site of photosynthesis (uses the sun to make glucose/sugar)

31
Q

Are chloroplast found in animals, plants or both?

A

Plants

32
Q

Explain how the golgi, ER and ribosomes work together within a cell

A

Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis. They work with the rough ER as this is where synthesised proteins are modified and transported in a cell. If synthesised proteins need to be packaged into a vesticle to be transported within or out of the cell, this occurs in the golgi.

33
Q

Describe prokaryotic cells

A
  • Simpler and smaller than eukaryotic cells
  • Lack membrane bound organelles
  • DNA is not in a nucleus
34
Q

Example of a prokaryote

A

Bacteria

35
Q

Example of a eukaryote

A

Animal, plant

36
Q

Describe eukaryotic cells

A

Complex, large and have membrane bound organelles

37
Q

Function of vesicles

A

Transport cell products to cell membrane

38
Q

Why do plants need a cell wall and larger vacuole, but not animals?

A

Because plants need a cell wall and large vacuole to form the shape of organism. Animals have bones which form their shape

39
Q

What is the function of the nucleolus?

A

Synthesis of ribosomal RNA and assembly of ribosomal subunits