Flashcards in Cells Deck (29):
Cells that do not contain a nucleus. It's DNA is floating in the cell membrane. Most prokaryotes are single celled organisms.
Contains a nucleus. The nucleus is what contain the genetic information(DNA). Eukaryotes can be multicellular or single cellular.
Structures specialized to perform distinct processes within a cell.
A rigid layer that gives protection,support and shape to the cell. Only in plants,algae, and most bacteria.
What forms a boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell.
A jellylike substance that contains molecular building blocks. Such as proteins, nucleic acids, minerals, an ions.
DNA that is wrapped around proteins(histones) and loosely compact. Not as compact as a chromatid. AKA spaghetti DNA.
A long thread of DNA. Made up of two sister chromatids.
cylinder shaped organelles made of short microtubes arranged in a circle. Help animal cells divide.(mitosis/meiosis T's)
The storehouse for DNA. Two demands for nucleus: 1: DNA must be carefully protected, 2:DNA must be available for use at proper times. Contains nucleolus. Is enclosed in the nuclear envelope.
A region in the nucleus where organelles that make proteins are assembled. (Ribosomes)
A double membrane that encases the nucleus. Allows large molecules to pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Something every eukaryotic cell has. A network of proteins that is constantly changing to meet the news of a cell. Let's the cell move, divide, gives it strength, and shape. Contains microtubules, microfiliments, and intermediate filimemts.
Long hollow tubes that give the cell it's shape and help cell divide by helping move DNA. Also helps with movements of organelles.
Tiny threads that help to enable cells to move and divide. Play an important role in muscle cells. Help them contract and relax.
Tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins. Made of proteins and RNA. Assembled in the nucleolus. Some are located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum,(ER).
Rough ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
Part of the ER that is covered in ribosomes. Proteins are made here.
Smooth ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
Here lipids are produced. Also, here drugs and alcohol are broken down. Does NOT contain ribosomes.
Golgi apparatus (Golgi body)
Closely layered stacks of membrane enclosed spaces that process, sort, and deliver proteins. Much like UPS.
Membrane bound organelles that contain enzymes. Defends a cell from bacteria/viruses and break down old cell parts. Little to NONE in plant cells.
A fluid filled sac used for storage of materials needed by a cell. Animal cells contain many small vacuoles. Water, food molecules, enzymes, etc.) A Central Vacuole(a single, large vacuole) is only found in plant cells.
Organelles that carry out photosynthesis. AKA convert solar energy into molecules filled with energy that cells can use,
A organelles that supplies energy to the cell. Converts food into energy (Cellular respiration)
Uncontrolled cell division. Cancer cells do not care about personal space.(continue to divide, even when comes into contact with other cells, unlike a healthy cell) Divide more often than healthy cells. Can be caused by exposure to carcinogens.
Unique cells that have not been differentiated yet. AKA can become other types of cells.
Stem cells that can grow into any cell type. For example: Embryos or fertilized eggs.
Stem cells that can grow into almost any cell. Found in neurons,skin,muscle,bone,liver,kidney, cartilage, pancreas.
Stem cells that can only grow into closely related cells. Such as red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.