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Biology- Semester 1 > Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells Deck (29):
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Prokaryote

Cells that do not contain a nucleus. It's DNA is floating in the cell membrane. Most prokaryotes are single celled organisms.

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Eukaryote

Contains a nucleus. The nucleus is what contain the genetic information(DNA). Eukaryotes can be multicellular or single cellular.

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Organelles

Structures specialized to perform distinct processes within a cell.

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Cell wall

A rigid layer that gives protection,support and shape to the cell. Only in plants,algae, and most bacteria.

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Cell membrane

What forms a boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell.

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Cytoplasm

A jellylike substance that contains molecular building blocks. Such as proteins, nucleic acids, minerals, an ions.

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Chromatin

DNA that is wrapped around proteins(histones) and loosely compact. Not as compact as a chromatid. AKA spaghetti DNA.

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Chromosome

A long thread of DNA. Made up of two sister chromatids.

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Centrioles

cylinder shaped organelles made of short microtubes arranged in a circle. Help animal cells divide.(mitosis/meiosis T's)

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Nucleus

The storehouse for DNA. Two demands for nucleus: 1: DNA must be carefully protected, 2:DNA must be available for use at proper times. Contains nucleolus. Is enclosed in the nuclear envelope.

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Nucleolus

A region in the nucleus where organelles that make proteins are assembled. (Ribosomes)

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Nuclear envelope

A double membrane that encases the nucleus. Allows large molecules to pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

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Cytoskeleton

Something every eukaryotic cell has. A network of proteins that is constantly changing to meet the news of a cell. Let's the cell move, divide, gives it strength, and shape. Contains microtubules, microfiliments, and intermediate filimemts.

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Microtubules

Long hollow tubes that give the cell it's shape and help cell divide by helping move DNA. Also helps with movements of organelles.

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Microfiliments

Tiny threads that help to enable cells to move and divide. Play an important role in muscle cells. Help them contract and relax.

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Ribosomes

Tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins. Made of proteins and RNA. Assembled in the nucleolus. Some are located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum,(ER).

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Rough ER (endoplasmic reticulum)

Part of the ER that is covered in ribosomes. Proteins are made here.

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Smooth ER (endoplasmic reticulum)

Here lipids are produced. Also, here drugs and alcohol are broken down. Does NOT contain ribosomes.

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Golgi apparatus (Golgi body)

Closely layered stacks of membrane enclosed spaces that process, sort, and deliver proteins. Much like UPS.

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Lysosomes

Membrane bound organelles that contain enzymes. Defends a cell from bacteria/viruses and break down old cell parts. Little to NONE in plant cells.

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Vacuole

A fluid filled sac used for storage of materials needed by a cell. Animal cells contain many small vacuoles. Water, food molecules, enzymes, etc.) A Central Vacuole(a single, large vacuole) is only found in plant cells.

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Chloroplast

Organelles that carry out photosynthesis. AKA convert solar energy into molecules filled with energy that cells can use,

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Mitochondria

A organelles that supplies energy to the cell. Converts food into energy (Cellular respiration)

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Cancer

Uncontrolled cell division. Cancer cells do not care about personal space.(continue to divide, even when comes into contact with other cells, unlike a healthy cell) Divide more often than healthy cells. Can be caused by exposure to carcinogens.

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Stem cells

Unique cells that have not been differentiated yet. AKA can become other types of cells.

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Totipotent cells

Stem cells that can grow into any cell type. For example: Embryos or fertilized eggs.

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Pluripotent cells

Stem cells that can grow into almost any cell. Found in neurons,skin,muscle,bone,liver,kidney, cartilage, pancreas.

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Multipotent cells

Stem cells that can only grow into closely related cells. Such as red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.

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Apoptosis

Programmed cell death. For example how baby's fingers were once webbed when they were an embryo.