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Flashcards in Cells Deck (65)
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1

rough ER

a system of membranes that possesses ribosomes
connected to nuclear envelope-maze
make protein and cell membrane

2

Microfilaments

thinnest, made of protein, help cells change shape

3

Intermediate fibers

Varied,rope-like, tension bearing

4

nucleus

controls all functioning in the cell
contains hereditary info
contains nucleolus

5

ribosome

carries out protein synthesis and interprets RNA code
can be attatched to ER or float

6

cell wall

ONLY IN PLANT CELLS
Made from cellulose
provides protection

7

Smooth ER

-NO RIBOSOMES
-lipid synthesis
-detoxifies harmful substances

8

Golgi Apparatus

-center of "manufacturing, processing, and shipping."
-modifies proteins are moved into their destinations

9

Lysosomes

Small organelle with enzymes to help with digestion
Important in phagocytosis
"debris removal"

10

Vacuoles

sacs for temporary storage

11

contactile vacuole

pumps out excess water in single cell aquatic organsims

12

central vacuole

found in plants for water storage

13

Mitochondria

-release energy from stored food (cellular respiration)
-ATP made here
-Energy released by the mitochondria is used for growth, -movements, and development

14

Centrioles

-ANIMAL CELLS ONLY
-made of microtubules and used in cell devision

15

Peroxisomes

-contains enzymes
-can generate and degrade H2O2 to protect a cell from toxic effects

16

cytoskeleton

-made up of microfilaments, intermediate fibers, microtubules
-extension of plasma membrane
-identical in structure to a centriole

17

cytoskeleton

made up of microfilaments, intermediate fibers, microtubules
extension of plasma membrane
identical in structure to a centriole

18

________ is before DNA coils and is usually long fibers of DNA

chromatin

19

What would happen to the volume of a cell if it couldn't reproduce?

the volume would grow faster than the surface area

20

What would happen to the volume of a cell if it couldn't reproduce?

the volume would grow faster than the surface area

21

Scanning Microscope (SEM)

-sample not cut
-can view live samples/3D images

22

Transmission

-sample needs to be cut very thin so electrons can go through it
-generally samples are not alive

23

Cell Junctions: Plant Cells

Plasmodesmata:
tiny gaps that allow things to enter and leave

24

Cell Junctions: Animal Cells
Tight Junctions

when you don't want anything to pass

25

Cell Junctions: Animal Cells
Anchoring Junctions

acts as velcro

26

Cell Junctions: Animal Cells
Gap Junctions

when you want things to pass through

27

Enyzmes are ________

proteins

28

How do enzymes help with reactions?

they lower the activation energy required to start a reaction

29

Enzymes are made up of what?

substrate, active site, competitive inhibitor

30

what is a substrate?

substance that is acted upon by an enzyme