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Magnet Biology > Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells Deck (65):
1

rough ER

a system of membranes that possesses ribosomes
connected to nuclear envelope-maze
make protein and cell membrane

2

Microfilaments

thinnest, made of protein, help cells change shape

3

Intermediate fibers

Varied,rope-like, tension bearing

4

nucleus

controls all functioning in the cell
contains hereditary info
contains nucleolus

5

ribosome

carries out protein synthesis and interprets RNA code
can be attatched to ER or float

6

cell wall

ONLY IN PLANT CELLS
Made from cellulose
provides protection

7

Smooth ER

-NO RIBOSOMES
-lipid synthesis
-detoxifies harmful substances

8

Golgi Apparatus

-center of "manufacturing, processing, and shipping."
-modifies proteins are moved into their destinations

9

Lysosomes

Small organelle with enzymes to help with digestion
Important in phagocytosis
"debris removal"

10

Vacuoles

sacs for temporary storage

11

contactile vacuole

pumps out excess water in single cell aquatic organsims

12

central vacuole

found in plants for water storage

13

Mitochondria

-release energy from stored food (cellular respiration)
-ATP made here
-Energy released by the mitochondria is used for growth, -movements, and development

14

Centrioles

-ANIMAL CELLS ONLY
-made of microtubules and used in cell devision

15

Peroxisomes

-contains enzymes
-can generate and degrade H2O2 to protect a cell from toxic effects

16

cytoskeleton

-made up of microfilaments, intermediate fibers, microtubules
-extension of plasma membrane
-identical in structure to a centriole

17

cytoskeleton

made up of microfilaments, intermediate fibers, microtubules
extension of plasma membrane
identical in structure to a centriole

18

________ is before DNA coils and is usually long fibers of DNA

chromatin

19

What would happen to the volume of a cell if it couldn't reproduce?

the volume would grow faster than the surface area

20

What would happen to the volume of a cell if it couldn't reproduce?

the volume would grow faster than the surface area

21

Scanning Microscope (SEM)

-sample not cut
-can view live samples/3D images

22

Transmission

-sample needs to be cut very thin so electrons can go through it
-generally samples are not alive

23

Cell Junctions: Plant Cells

Plasmodesmata:
tiny gaps that allow things to enter and leave

24

Cell Junctions: Animal Cells
Tight Junctions

when you don't want anything to pass

25

Cell Junctions: Animal Cells
Anchoring Junctions

acts as velcro

26

Cell Junctions: Animal Cells
Gap Junctions

when you want things to pass through

27

Enyzmes are ________

proteins

28

How do enzymes help with reactions?

they lower the activation energy required to start a reaction

29

Enzymes are made up of what?

substrate, active site, competitive inhibitor

30

what is a substrate?

substance that is acted upon by an enzyme

31

what is an active site?

where the substrate bonds and the reaction occures

32

competitive inhibitor

"fights" the substrate and "wins" and goes into the active site

33

Noncompetitive inhibitor

-goes in from the "other side" and changes the shape of the active site
-more permanent that a competitive inhibitor

34

allosteric site

place where the noncompetitive inhibitor goes

35

enzymes need what to work?

coenzyme or cofactor

36

enzymes need what to work?

coenzyme or cofactor

37

Cell Theory

1: All living things are made up of cells
2. Cells are the basic unit of life
3. All cells come from preexisting cells

38

Passive Transport goes from [ ] to [ ] concentration

high to low

39

Is ATP required in Passive Transport?

no

40

Examples of Passive Transport

diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis

41

Examples of Active Transport

endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis

42

Active Transport goes from [ ] to [ ] concentration

low to high

43

Active Transport goes from [ ] to [ ] concentration

low to high

44

Definition of osmosis

diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane

45

Hypertonic

-lower concentration of water outside of the cell
-water moves out of the cell --> cell will shrivel up

46

Hypotonic

-higher concentration of water inside the cell
-water movies into the cell--> cell will swell/burst
-if in a plant cell: plasmolysis

47

Isotonic

-water concentration is the same inside and outside
-no net movement of water

48

Simple diffusion

the tendency of molecules of any substance to spread out into space

49

Facilitated diffusion

-uses transport proteins
-requires no energy
-objects move from high to low

50

Active Transport: Endocytosis

cells take in material by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane

51

Exocytosis

cell secrete macromolecules for fusion of vesicles

52

Types of endocytosis:
Phagocytosis

engulfs solid

53

Types of endocytosis:
Receptor mediated

-highly specific
-receptor proteins on the cell membrane pick up particular molecules from surrounding

54

Types of endocytosis:
Receptor mediated

-highly specific
-receptor proteins on the cell membrane pick up particular molecules from surrounding

55

ADP stands for _______ __ _________

adenine di phosphate

56

ADP stands for _______ __ _________

adenine di phosphate

57

how does ATP work?

the phosphate in ATP holds energy from burning glucose

58

ADP grabs ______ and becomes ATP

energy

59

when you burn sugar you make ___

ATP

60

endergonic reaction

gains energy

61

exergonic reaction

loses energy

62

Glycoproteins

compound where a portein and carbohydrate are bonded together

63

Glycolipid

lipid attached to short carbohydrate chain

64

cellular respiration is an __________ reaction

endergonic

65

photsynthesis is an __________ reaction

exergonic reaction