Flashcards in Unit 16 (Biotechnology) Deck (27)
what is the purpose of chemical treatments in DNA extraction?
Chemical treatments cause cells and nuclei to burst
What is "spooling" of the DNA
when The DNA is inherently sticky, and is pulled out of the mixture after chemical treatment
What is the purpose of Restriction Enzymes?
Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sequences
Why are Restriction enzymes useful?
Useful to divide DNA into manageable fragments
Electrophoresis separates DNA based on what?
size and charge
The phosphate groups are _________ charged
DNA is placed in ___ and electricity is run through
________ ___ is moved to the positive end
_______ _________ move farther and faster
Purpose of dye molecules?
Dye molecules are large and stop the chain from growing
What is PCR
A method of making many copies of a piece of DNA
When did the Human Genome Project start?
What is the purpose of the Human Genome Project?
Research effort to sequence all of our DNA (46 chromosomes and map ever gene loci
How many nucleotides are there?
Over 3.3 billion nucleotides
organism’s complete set of proteins
Only __ of human genome codes for proteins (exons)
Other 98% (introns) are ___-______
what are transposons?
pieces of DNA that move to different locations on chromosomes
What are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)?
places where humans differ by a single nucleotide
how many SNP are there?
transposons make up how much of the human genome?
is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.
are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA nucleosomes.
structural units of DNA
a gene that in certain circumstances can transform a cell into a tumor cell.
a compound structure at the end of a chromosome.