Unit 16 (Biotechnology) Flashcards Preview

Magnet Biology > Unit 16 (Biotechnology) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 16 (Biotechnology) Deck (27):
1

what is the purpose of chemical treatments in DNA extraction?

Chemical treatments cause cells and nuclei to burst

2

What is "spooling" of the DNA

when The DNA is inherently sticky, and is pulled out of the mixture after chemical treatment

3

What is the purpose of Restriction Enzymes?

Restriction enzymes cut DNA at specific sequences

4

Why are Restriction enzymes useful?

Useful to divide DNA into manageable fragments

5

Electrophoresis separates DNA based on what?

size and charge

6

The phosphate groups are _________ charged

negatively

7

DNA is placed in ___ and electricity is run through

gel

8

________ ___ is moved to the positive end

Negative DNA

9

_______ _________ move farther and faster

Smaller fragments

10

Purpose of dye molecules?

Dye molecules are large and stop the chain from growing

11

What is PCR

A method of making many copies of a piece of DNA

12

When did the Human Genome Project start?

1990

13

What is the purpose of the Human Genome Project?

Research effort to sequence all of our DNA (46 chromosomes and map ever gene loci

14

How many nucleotides are there?

Over 3.3 billion nucleotides

15

Proteome

organism’s complete set of proteins

16

Only __ of human genome codes for proteins (exons)

2%

17

Other 98% (introns) are ___-______

non-coding

18

what are transposons?

pieces of DNA that move to different locations on chromosomes

19

What are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)?

places where humans differ by a single nucleotide

20

how many SNP are there?

8 million

21

transposons make up how much of the human genome?

one half

22

cell differentiation

is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.

23

Histones

are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA nucleosomes.

24

nucleosomes

structural units of DNA

25

oncogenes

a gene that in certain circumstances can transform a cell into a tumor cell.

26

telomere

a compound structure at the end of a chromosome.

27

Briggs and King

cloned Dolly the Sheep