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Flashcards in Cells Deck (59):
1

Diffusion

Natural movement of particles from high to low concentration

2

Facilitated Diffusion

Movement is response to the concentration gradient (high to low concentration) but requires Protein Facilitator.

3

Active Transport

Requires ATP to go against concentration gradient (low to high concentration)

4

Passive Transport

Movement of material by the process of diffusion with no energy required.

5

Osmosis

Instead of solute going through, solvent (water) moves from high to low concentration

6

Reverse Osmosis

Low to high concentration (has to have good physical and mental health)

7

Hypertonic

Concentration of solutes outside of the cell is higher than it is in the inside. *shrinks*

8

Isotonic

Concentration of solutes outside of the cell is equal to that it is inside. *Comes in and goes out*

9

Hypotonic

Concentration of solutes outside of the cells is lower than it is on the inside. *inflates*

10

Differences between cells, tissues, organs and systems.

Cells performing the same function together are tissues, tissues contributing to the same function form organs which are part of a system

11

Dermal Tissue

Outer layer of cells "epidermis" which is responsible for the uptake of water and mineral salts from soil.

12

Ground Tissue

-Found beneath the epidermis
-Provides strength for stems
-Photosynthesis occurs in leaves
-Packed together cells but some space for air to pass through

13

Xylem Tissue

-Transports water and dissolved minerals from roots to stem to leaves
-Substances are used in photosynthesis
-Vessels are the thick walled tubes, result of cellulose in wall

14

Phloem Tissue

-Transports sucrose and other dissolved sugars from leaves to plant
-Sugar used to provide energy for cellular process (protein manufacture)

15

Stoma

Opening allowing movement of gas in and out of the cell

16

Stomata

Tiny pores formed by guard cells for gas exchange

17

Cuticle

-Each substance secreted by the cells of the leaves and stem
-Help reduce the water loss from
the plants
-Outer layer of the upper epidermis, waxy

18

Guard cells

Lower epidermal surface of leaves, open space for diffusion of gas and water

19

Root cells

-Tiny hair-like productions that are produced by cells that become part of the root system
-Responsible for absorption of water and minerals from the soil

20

Sieve tube cells

-Phloem tissue is formed from individual long sieve tubes
-Connected go small, nucleated "companion cells" that appear to direct their activities

21

Vascular Tissue

-Responsible for transport of minerals through plant
-Provides leaf with water needed for transpiration and photosynthesis

22

Cytoplasmic streaming

Movement of chloroplasts makes it false evidence that it was a fluid

23

Transpiration

Process of water vapour leaving the leaf through stomata

24

Mesophyll

Specialized ground tissue between upper and lower epidermis of the leaf

25

Palisade Tissue cells

-Just bellow upper epidermis
-Long, rigid, rectangular packed together cells so a large number of cells are exposed to the sun
-Responsible for photosynthesis, many chloroplasts

26

Spongy Mesophyll Tissue

-Between palisade tissue and lower epidermis
-Loosely packed, regular shape, less rigid cells
-Increased space allows gas exchange by diffusion and leaf

27

Endocytosis

-Particles are brought into the cell by folding-in of the cell membrane to form a vacuole or vesicle
-They were too big to go through semi-permiable

28

Exocytosis

-Vesicles fuses with the cell membrane and then ruptures to release its contents outside of the cell
-Too big to go through semi-permeable

29

Liposomes

-Can attached to infected cells and deliver medication
-Injects DNA into tumour cells
-Fluid filled sacks surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer identical to cell membranes
-Produced by manipulating the composition of the cell membrane

30

Recognition proteins

-Embedded in the cell membrane
-Sticks out into the cells surroundings
-Allow cells to recognize one another and destroy invading bacteria

31

Receptor proteins

-Bind with certain molecules to bring into the cell by endocytosis
-Some have sugar groups attached to make binding specific

32

Insulin

-Small protein produced by pancreas *hormone*
-Secreted into bloodstream and binds with membrane receptors

33

Peritoneal Dialysis

-Soft plastic tube inserted into abdominal cavity and pumps sterile dialysis into it (no toxins/wastes)

34

Hemodialysis

-Blood removed from body, cleansed using a dialyste fluid in a machine, heated to body temperature then returned back to body
-Performed in hospital + kidney transplant

35

Concentration gradient

Difference and concentration, determines direction of solute/solvent

36

Surface area

-All around the cell
-A=6s2
-Greater surface area to volume ratio makes the cell transport more efficient

37

Volume

-How much the cell is made of
-V=s3
-Greater surface area to volume ratio makes the cell transport more efficient

38

Meristems

-Region of a plant tissue where the cells divide and duplicate (regrow)
-Top of the plant
-Stem cells of plant

39

Photosynthesis

-Chlorophyll absorbs light energy, converts into mechanical energy stored in molecules of glucose for future fuelling cellular process (energized)
-6H20+6CO2 -(chlorophyll+light)-> C6H12O6+6O2
-water+carbon dioxide -(chlorophyll+light)-> glucose+oxygen

40

Cellular respiration

-General reaction to obtain energy to fuel cell activities
-Begins in cytoplasm and completed in the mitochondria
-C6H12O6+6O2-->6CO2+6H2O+energy
-glucose+oxygen-->carbon dioxide+water+energy

41

Cohesion

-Attraction of water molecules to one another
-Positive molecule attached to negative molecule

42

Adhesion

Attraction of water molecules to molecules of other substances

43

Shoot system

Everything above ground (stem, leaves, flowers, fruits, tubers)

44

Root system

Everything underground (aerial roots even though they're above ground)

45

Tubers

Swollen stems that store food Ex. Potatoes -->even though they're underground it's still shoot system

46

Mitosis

-Process of cell division
-Allows growth and repair (divides into 2)

47

Root Pressure

High concentration gadient

48

Tension/Transpiration pull

-Water evaporation through stomata and lenticels in the process of transpiration creates tension
-Water molecules evaporates into surroundings, it creates a pull in the adjacent water molecules
-Force draws water up xylem vessels to leaves

49

Plasmolysis

-Water contained inside vacuole leaves the vacuole and cell (shrinks)
-Concentration gradient going in and out of the cell

50

Turgidity

-How form a plant is
-Pressure from the water
-Dehydrated= not turgid (up xylem down phloem)

51

Source

Where the products of photosynthesis is manufactured (the leaves)

52

Sink

Where products of photosynthesis is used/stored

53

Pressure difference

Produced by active transport and osmosis, maintain a constant flow down the sieve tube

54

Positive phototropism + negative gravitopism

-Plant fires towards the light

55

Negative phototropism + positive gravitropism

Plant grows away from the light

56

Tropism

Important control systems to ensure survival of the plant

57

Area of Elongation

Growth of the plant

58

Charles and Francis Darwin

-Made the experiment to prove tropism
-Cut of the top where the meristems were

59

Boysen-Jensen

Found the area of elongation was lower in the leaf and facing away from the light