Microscopes and Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Microscopes and Cells Deck (35):
1

Mitochondria (What does it provide, where is it situated, what is another word for it)

• Provides cell with ATP energy through cellular respiration process
• Located around the cells cytoplasm
• *power house*

2

Centriole Structure (what cell is it in, is it important for)

• Only in the animal cells
• Important for process of cell division

3

Nucleolus (what is it, what is it surrounded by, what does it make)

• Dark part in nucleus
• Surrounded by genetic material
• Makes Ribosomes for the cell (makes more protein)
•Cell division

4

Ribosomes (where are they found, what does it specialize, where are they produced, what are they)

• Found in Cytoplasm cell, attached to Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Specialize in protein synthesis
• Produced in Nucleolus
• Very small, only can see with an electron microscope

5

Nucleus (what does it do, where is it located, what does it hold, what does it produce)

• Command Centre of the cell, directs all cells activities
• Located in any spot in the Cytoplasm
• Hold genetic material
• Doesn't produce anything

6

Cytoplasm (what does it do, what does it look like, why does it look like that)

• Holds all organelles in place
• Cytoplasmic stream process that distributes cell contents with circular flow
• It is jelly so that the organelles can still move through it (mostly of water)

7

Lysosomes (what is another word for them, what does it do, where does it roam around, what does it release, what does it control)

• "Suicide sacs"
• Gets rid of worn out/useless organelles (damaged cells)
• Roams around cytoplasm getting rid of bacteria and all the organelles
• Releases Enzymes
• Controls digestion of certain tissues

8

Vacuole (what is the size of it in each cell, what does it help with)

• Massive in plant cell
• Smaller in animal cell
• Helps in the storage of water, ions, sugar, vitamins

9

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (what are they, what does it contain, what is it associated with)

• They are small tubes
• Has no Ribosomes present/attached
• Associated with fat and oil production

10

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (what are attached, what is it associated with)

• Has Ribosomes attached
• Associated with protein synthesis

11

Golgi Apparatus (what is another word for it, what does it storage, where does it receive it substances, what happens when vesicles are pinched off)

• "Shipping department"
• Storage materials exported out or in the cell into blood
• Receives substances from Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Pinched off vesicles become Lysosomes

12

Vesicles (what does it do, what does it package)

• Shipping containers within cells
• Package liquids with variety substances, carry to around or outside of the cell
• Forms around material liquid or solid brought into the cell
• *Minerals, vitamins, sugar (glucose)*

13

Cytoskeleton (where is it located, what does it provide, what does it help with)

• Located all over the cell membrane
• Provides mechanical strength
• Helps move
• Helps maintain cell shape (cell division)

14

Fluid Mosaic Model (what is another word for it, what does it provide, what can it do and not do)

• "Cell membrane"
• Provides shape structure of the cell
• Things can go in and out of it
• Can't control what goes in and out
• Bigger things, like glucose, have to go through protein pores

15

Cell wall (what cell is this in, what does it contain, what colour is it, what does it do)

• In the plant cell
• Contains Chlorophyll
•Green colour
• Photosynthesis--> Energy from the sun converts carbon dioxide and water into sugars

16

Robert Hooke

• Invented the two lens microscope
• Examined a cork and found cells

17

Aristotle

• More of a philosopher
• Tested his theories unlike Roman Empire

18

Hans & Zacharias Janssen

• Invented three lens microscope (compound)

19

Van Leeuwenhoek

• First to see movement of different cells (bacteria)
• Used tiny lens at his eye
• His microscope had higher magnification
• Single lense

20

Francesco Redi

• Proved the spontaneous generation wrong
• Used meat to see if maggots were made
• Observed flies didn't go to the meat when the lid was closed

21

Louis Pasteur

• Proved spontaneous generation wrong
• Used the flasks to show how mold was only made when there was contamination

22

Matthias Schneiden

• Studied plants
• Observed there have cells

23

Theodor Schwann

• Studied animal philosophy
• Believed there must be similarities between plant and animal tissue
• They both have cells (cell theory)

24

Contrast

• Stains cells to show better
• Changes the way light passes through called Bright Field

25

Resolution

• Ability to distinguish between to close structures

26

Florescence Microscopy (4 types, what colours, improves what)

• Darkfeild
• Phase contrast
• Differential interference contrast
• Brightfield
• Yellow, orange or green
• Improve images by altering light passing through

27

Confocal Technology

• Light from any part of the specimen Will pass through the pinhole to the electronic detector
• Produces high resolution
• Produce three-dimensional image
• *Jelly fish*

28

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)

• Beam of electrons
• Electrons that pass through the specimen fall on a florescence screen
• black and white

29

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

• Gives information about the surface features of a specimen
• Covered with an electron dense material
• Reflects electrons picked up by a sensor and form a three dimensional image

30

Gene Mapping (3 techniques)

• Mapping of DNA
• Breaking cells down to release their DNA
• Use chemical techniques to make many copies of the DNA
• Finding the sequence of chemical subunits through computer analysis
• Opens up the understanding of the way different parts of the genetic material work

31

X-ray crystallography (3 types it uses, helps understand what, lead to what, first molecule to be studied this way)

• X-rays, special sensors, computer technology
• Helps understand how the molecules work
• Led to the model of DNA molecule
• First molecules to be studied this way was myoglobin

32

Robert Brown

• Discovered the nucleus

33

Chloroplasts (what cell is it in, what does it contain, what colour)

• Only in Plant cell
• Contain Chlorophyll that produce a green colour
• Sites of photosynthesis
• Energy from the sun concerts CO2 and H2O into sugars
• Sugar for plant's use and storage

34

Electron Microscopy

• Uses a beam of electrons instead of a light wave
• Is able to produce images that provide fine detail

35

Open system

Just interact with its environment to maintain its existence