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Flashcards in Microscopes and Cells Deck (35):

Mitochondria (What does it provide, where is it situated, what is another word for it)

• Provides cell with ATP energy through cellular respiration process
• Located around the cells cytoplasm
• *power house*


Centriole Structure (what cell is it in, is it important for)

• Only in the animal cells
• Important for process of cell division


Nucleolus (what is it, what is it surrounded by, what does it make)

• Dark part in nucleus
• Surrounded by genetic material
• Makes Ribosomes for the cell (makes more protein)
•Cell division


Ribosomes (where are they found, what does it specialize, where are they produced, what are they)

• Found in Cytoplasm cell, attached to Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Specialize in protein synthesis
• Produced in Nucleolus
• Very small, only can see with an electron microscope


Nucleus (what does it do, where is it located, what does it hold, what does it produce)

• Command Centre of the cell, directs all cells activities
• Located in any spot in the Cytoplasm
• Hold genetic material
• Doesn't produce anything


Cytoplasm (what does it do, what does it look like, why does it look like that)

• Holds all organelles in place
• Cytoplasmic stream process that distributes cell contents with circular flow
• It is jelly so that the organelles can still move through it (mostly of water)


Lysosomes (what is another word for them, what does it do, where does it roam around, what does it release, what does it control)

• "Suicide sacs"
• Gets rid of worn out/useless organelles (damaged cells)
• Roams around cytoplasm getting rid of bacteria and all the organelles
• Releases Enzymes
• Controls digestion of certain tissues


Vacuole (what is the size of it in each cell, what does it help with)

• Massive in plant cell
• Smaller in animal cell
• Helps in the storage of water, ions, sugar, vitamins


Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (what are they, what does it contain, what is it associated with)

• They are small tubes
• Has no Ribosomes present/attached
• Associated with fat and oil production


Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (what are attached, what is it associated with)

• Has Ribosomes attached
• Associated with protein synthesis


Golgi Apparatus (what is another word for it, what does it storage, where does it receive it substances, what happens when vesicles are pinched off)

• "Shipping department"
• Storage materials exported out or in the cell into blood
• Receives substances from Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Pinched off vesicles become Lysosomes


Vesicles (what does it do, what does it package)

• Shipping containers within cells
• Package liquids with variety substances, carry to around or outside of the cell
• Forms around material liquid or solid brought into the cell
• *Minerals, vitamins, sugar (glucose)*


Cytoskeleton (where is it located, what does it provide, what does it help with)

• Located all over the cell membrane
• Provides mechanical strength
• Helps move
• Helps maintain cell shape (cell division)


Fluid Mosaic Model (what is another word for it, what does it provide, what can it do and not do)

• "Cell membrane"
• Provides shape structure of the cell
• Things can go in and out of it
• Can't control what goes in and out
• Bigger things, like glucose, have to go through protein pores


Cell wall (what cell is this in, what does it contain, what colour is it, what does it do)

• In the plant cell
• Contains Chlorophyll
•Green colour
• Photosynthesis--> Energy from the sun converts carbon dioxide and water into sugars


Robert Hooke

• Invented the two lens microscope
• Examined a cork and found cells



• More of a philosopher
• Tested his theories unlike Roman Empire


Hans & Zacharias Janssen

• Invented three lens microscope (compound)


Van Leeuwenhoek

• First to see movement of different cells (bacteria)
• Used tiny lens at his eye
• His microscope had higher magnification
• Single lense


Francesco Redi

• Proved the spontaneous generation wrong
• Used meat to see if maggots were made
• Observed flies didn't go to the meat when the lid was closed


Louis Pasteur

• Proved spontaneous generation wrong
• Used the flasks to show how mold was only made when there was contamination


Matthias Schneiden

• Studied plants
• Observed there have cells


Theodor Schwann

• Studied animal philosophy
• Believed there must be similarities between plant and animal tissue
• They both have cells (cell theory)



• Stains cells to show better
• Changes the way light passes through called Bright Field



• Ability to distinguish between to close structures


Florescence Microscopy (4 types, what colours, improves what)

• Darkfeild
• Phase contrast
• Differential interference contrast
• Brightfield
• Yellow, orange or green
• Improve images by altering light passing through


Confocal Technology

• Light from any part of the specimen Will pass through the pinhole to the electronic detector
• Produces high resolution
• Produce three-dimensional image
• *Jelly fish*


Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)

• Beam of electrons
• Electrons that pass through the specimen fall on a florescence screen
• black and white


Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

• Gives information about the surface features of a specimen
• Covered with an electron dense material
• Reflects electrons picked up by a sensor and form a three dimensional image


Gene Mapping (3 techniques)

• Mapping of DNA
• Breaking cells down to release their DNA
• Use chemical techniques to make many copies of the DNA
• Finding the sequence of chemical subunits through computer analysis
• Opens up the understanding of the way different parts of the genetic material work


X-ray crystallography (3 types it uses, helps understand what, lead to what, first molecule to be studied this way)

• X-rays, special sensors, computer technology
• Helps understand how the molecules work
• Led to the model of DNA molecule
• First molecules to be studied this way was myoglobin


Robert Brown

• Discovered the nucleus


Chloroplasts (what cell is it in, what does it contain, what colour)

• Only in Plant cell
• Contain Chlorophyll that produce a green colour
• Sites of photosynthesis
• Energy from the sun concerts CO2 and H2O into sugars
• Sugar for plant's use and storage


Electron Microscopy

• Uses a beam of electrons instead of a light wave
• Is able to produce images that provide fine detail


Open system

Just interact with its environment to maintain its existence