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Flashcards in Cells Deck (43):
1

Microscope

An instrument for viewing small objects

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Cells

The smallest unit of life. Cells are the building blocks of living things

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Light microscopes

Instrument for viewing very small objects. A light microscope can magnify things up to 1500 times.

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Electron microscopes

Instrument for viewing very small objects. An electron microscope is much more powerful than a light microscope and it can magnify up to a million times.

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Monocular

Describes a microscope through which the specimen is seen using one eye only

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Binocular

A microscope with two eyepieces, so you use both eyes to look at the object

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Stereo

Describes a microscope through which the specimen is viewed using both eyes

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Magnification

The number of times the image of an object has been enlarged using a lens or lens system

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Cell membrane

Structure that encloses the contents of a cell and allows the movement of some materials in and out

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Ribosomes

Small structures within a cell in which proteins such as enzymes are made

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Cytosol

The fluid found inside cells

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Cytoplasm

A material inside a cell, It contains many organelles such as the nucleus and vacuoles.

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Chloroplasts

They are the ‘factories’ in which carbon dioxide and water are changed by sunlight and water into food by the process of photosynthesis.

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Mitochondria

They supply energy to other parts of the cell

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Nucleus

Roundish structure inside a cell that acts as the control center for the cell.

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Chromosomes

Tiny, thread-like structure inside the nucleus of a cell.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid

The chemical substance found in all living things that encodes the genetic information of an organism

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Mitosis

Cell division process that results in new cells with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell

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Clones

Identical copy

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Cytokinesis

The process where the cytoplasm of a cell divides to form two daughter cells

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Infectious diseases

Disease that can be transferred from one organism to another

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Non-infectious diseases

Disease that cannot be transferred from one organism to another

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Antibiotics

Substance derived from a micro-organism and used to kill bacteria in the body

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Disinfectants

Chemical used to kill bacteria on surfaces and non-living objects

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Antiseptics

Mild disinfectant used on body tissue to kill microbes

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Bactericidal

Describes an antiseptic that kills bacteria

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Bacteriostatic

Describes an antiseptic that stops bacteria from growing or dividing but doesn't kill them

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Epidermal Cells

It forms a boundary between the plant and the external environment. It is covered with a waxy coating called photosynthesis

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Root Hair Cells

They collect water and mineral nutrients. The cell having a large surface area to collect more water or food.

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Palisade mesophyll Cells

They are tall and closely packed to absorb maximum light. Most photosynthesis take place in the palisade cell.

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Phloem

Type of tissue that transports sugars made in the leaves to other parts of a plant

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Translocation

Transport of materials, such as water and glucose, in plants

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Xylem vessels

pipelines for the flow of water up plants. They are made up of the remains of dead xylem cells fitted end to end with the joining walls broken down.

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Lignin

A hard substance in the walls of dead xylem cells that make up the tubes carrying water up plant stems

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Stomata

Small openings mainly on the lower surface of leaves. These pores are opened and closed by guard cells

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Transpiration steam

Movement of water through a plant as a result of loss of water from the leaves

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Vascular bundles

Groups of xylem and phloem vessels within plant stems

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Transpiration

Loss of water from plant leaves through their stomata

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Guard cells

Cells on either side of a stoma that work together to control the opening and closing of the stoma

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Wilt

Plant stems and leaves wilt when there is insufficient water in their cells.

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Vacuoles

Sacs within a cell used to store food and wastes. Plant cells usually have one large vacuole

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Flaccid

Describes cells that are not firm due to loss of water

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Turgid

Describes something that is firm